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Unit 1

fields of earth science? ( 5 branches) geology, oceanography, meteorology, astronomy , environmental science
geology study of earth's surface, interior and history
oceanography the study of oceans
astronomy the study of the universe beyond earth
environmental science study of earth's environment and resources
biosphere all organisms on earth as well as the environments in which they live.
lithosphere includes crust and upper mantle
hydrosphere water in earth's oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, glaciers, and atmosphere
atmosphere gases surrounding earth including 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen
structure of the solid earth crust - thinnest , mantle - biggest , outer core - liquid , inner core - solid
atmosphere of earth Nitrogen - 78% , oxygen- 21 % , argon- 1% , other gases- 0,6 %
crust of earth (continental) (composition) made of granite ,(depth) 20 - 70 km in depth , (properties) cool rigid and brittle
oceanic crust (composition) made of basalt ,(depth) 7-10 km in depth ,(properties) cool rigid and brittle
mantle (composition) very dense , variety of minerals in composition , (depth) the crust is 2900km in depth, (properties) the upper mantle is hot and plastic , the lower mantle is rigid , hotter and has great pressure
outer core (composition) is iron and nickel , (depth) it is 2900km to 5150 km in depth , (properties) it is liquid
inner core (composition) is iron and nickel , (depth) 5150 to 6400 km in depth , (properties) it is solid
asthenosphere its composition is partially melted rock like silly putty , (Depth) is like the upper part of the mantle , ( properties) tectonic plates float on it.
laboratory safety behaviors Get the teacher's permission before you want to start a lab , Study all the procedures, use the safety equipment, do not eat or drink during a lab, keep materials away from flames , report a incident or accident
unsafe lab behaviors slanting a test tube near you or someone else while heating , not knowing how to use a fire extinguisher, eye wash or safety shower , not disposing any chemicals left
safety equipment fire extinguisher , triple beam balance , beaker , safety goggles, fume hood, test tube, graduated cylinder , dropper , eye wash station , shower
scientific method a problem solving tool used by scientists
scientific method steps 1. state the problem as question 2. research the problem 3. form a hypothesis 4. write down the procedures 5. perform your experiment 6. observe and record results 7. interpret your data 8. state your conclusion
control group gives a basis comparing the experimental group.
experimental group the group that is being tested by changing variables at a time .
remote sensing collecting data from the earth's surface from space by satellites
landsat satellite collects data in visible and infrared from energy reflected by the earth
topex/Poseidon satellite uses radar to map the ocean floor . transmits high frequency signals and bounces them off the ocean surface
GPS ( global positioning system) radio navigation system using 24 satellites to determine exact positions on the earth.
3 satellites - to get longitude and latitude
ecology habitats of organisms and how organisms interact with each other and their environments
density amount of mass per unit. you get density by dividing the mass of matter by it's volume
mass the amount of matter in an object.
volume the amount of space occupied by an object
scientific notation a type of shorthand used by a scientist in which a number is expressed as a multiplier and a power of 10.
Technology application of scientific discoveries
frequency number of waves that pass a given point each second.
wavelength the distance from the crest of one wave to the top of the next crest.
theory the best guess with all available info.
Graphing a line graph is a visual display that shows how two variables are related. on a line graph, the independent variable is plotted on the horizontal x axis and the dependent variable is plotted on the y axis. a graph must have a title , units and be neat.
metric units and conversions the metric units are meters , liters and grams ( use KHDMDCM ) move left or right how many spaces using KHDMDCM
jobs of astronomers study stars , planets , life cycle of stars. launch satellites and probes
jobs of meteorologists use scientific principles to predict the weather or anything related
jobs of oceanographers study plate tectonic movements , ocean currents , sea life and composition of sea water.
jobs of geologists study minerals, earthquakes , fossils and oil drilling
jobs of volcanologist study volcanoes
jobs of seismologist study earthquakes
jobs of environmental scientists study water pollution and global warming.
meteorology study of earth's atmosphere and weather
4 satellites - elevation
how to read graduated cylinder eye level , from the bottom , flat surface
as volume gets bigger density decreases
finding volume (liquids) graduated cylinder , eye levels , read at bottom of meniscus . measured in ml
finding volume ( cubes , rectangle) l x w x h . measured in cm cubed
finding volume (irregular solids) water displacement measured in ml
finding mass (solids) triple beam balance . measured in grams
finding mass (liquids) mass of liquid and container minus the mass of empty container. measured in grams
finding density mass divided by volume . measured in g/cm cubed or g/ml
Created by: dk7