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Apologia Gen Sci 4

Apologia Exploring Creation with General Science Module 4

Name, Term, or ConceptDescription/Definition
the goal of science to find out why; motivated by curiosity
the goal of applied science to make something better
technology the invention of a new process or machine that makes life better or makes a job easier
simple machine* a device that reduces the amount of force needed to perform a task or changes the direction of a force
force* a push or pull that changes the motion of an object
lever a rigid bar that rotates around a fixed point called a fulcrum
mechanical advantage* the amount by which force or motion is magnified in a simple machine
first-class lever magnifies and changes direction of the effort
second-class lever magnifies but does not change direction of the effort
third-class lever magnifies speed but does not magnify or change direction of the effort (effort is greater)
mechanical advantage of a lever = (distance from fulcrum to effort) ÷ (distance from fulcrum to resistance)
diameter* the length of a straight line that travels from one side of a circle to another, while passing through the center of the circle
mechanical advantage of a wheel and axle = (diameter of the wheel) ÷ (diameter of the axle)
wheel and axle a large circular wheel attached to a smaller cylinder (the axle)
pulley a grooved wheel that rotates freely on a frame which is usually called a block, with a rope in the groove
block and tackle a system of multiple pulleys
mechanical advantage of one pulley 1
mechanical advantage of two pulleys 2
mechanical advantage of an inclined plane, wedge, or double wedge = (length of slope) ÷ height
screw an inclined plane wrapped around the axle of a wheel and axle
pitch of a screw the vertical distance between the threads
mechanical advantage of a screw = circumference ÷ pitch
circumference* the distance around a circle, equal to pi (approximately 3.1416) times the circle's diameter
pi a number that is approximately 3.1416
Created by: ginnie on 2007-10-30



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