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APHG chapter 2

population

QuestionAnswer
Activity space The space where daily activities occur
Age Distribution Percentage of the total population, or the population of each sex, at each age level
Arithmetic Density The total # of people divided by the total land area.
Agricultural Density The ratio of the # of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agricultural
Agricultural Revolution The time when humans beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
Carrying capacity This is the population level that can be supported, given the quantity of food, habitat, water and other life infrastructure present. This is important because it tells how many people an area will be able to support.
Census A complete enumeration of a population
Cohort Population of various age categories in a population pyramid. This is important because this can tell what state this country it is whether in Stage 3 or Stage 5 in the demographic transition model.
Concentration areas of land where people are most dense
Crude Birth Rate (CBR) The total # of births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
Crude Death Rate (CDR) The total # of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
Demography The scientic study of population characteristics.
Demographic momentum this is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution. This is important because once this happens a country moves to a different stage in the demographic transition model.
Demographic regions Cape Verde is in Stage 2 (High Growth), Chile is in Stage 3 (Moderate Growth), and Denmark is in Stage 4 (Low Growth). This is important because it shows how different parts of the world are in different stages of the demographic transition.
Demographic Transition Model sequence of demographic changes in which a country mover from a high CDR and a high CBR, to having a low CDR and a low CBR
Demography natural rate increase
Dependency rate
Diaspora
Distribution The arrangement of something across Earth's surface.
Dot map Dot represents a certain # of a population
Doubling Time 2010-doubles every 54 years The # of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
Ecumene The proportion of earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement. This is important because it tells how much of the land has been built upon and how much land is left for us to build on.
Epidemiological transition model the theory that says that there is a distinct cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition model. It can help explain how a country's population changes so dramatically.
Equilibrium
Exponentially
Infant mortality Rate at which newborns die during the first year of their life, per thousand of live births within a geographical region or institution.
J-curve This is when the projection population show exponential growth; sometimes shape as a j-curve
Physiological density The # of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture
Population density
Population distribution is two back-to-back bar graphs, one showing the number of males and one showing females in a particular population in five-year age groups.
Industrial Revolution A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Population explosion a sudden increase or burst in the population in either a certain geographical area or worldwide
Population pyramid A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex
Maladaption
Natural Increase Rate (NIR) The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate
Restriction population policy government policies to reduce the rate of natural increase
Megalopolis term used to designate large coalescing supercities that are forming in diverse parts of the world
S-curve traces the cyclical movement upwards and downwards in a graph. So named for its shape as the letter "s"
Sex ratio The # of males per 100 females in the population
Stationary population level (SPL) a population containing a basically even distribution of age groups
Sustain ability providing the best outcomes for human and natural environments both in the present and for the future
Total Fertility Rate The average # of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years
Zero Population Growth (ZPG) A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
Pandemic Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very proportion of the population.
Overpopulation The # of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
Linear Growth arithmetic growth; increases at a constant amount per unit time (1, 2, 3, 4, …)
Exponential Growth geometric growth; doubles each population (2, 4, 8, 16,)
Thomas Malthus Was one of the first to argue that the worlds rate of population increase was far outrunning the development of food population.important:he brought up the point that we may be outrunning our supplies because of our exponentially growing population.
Boserup human growth stimulates agricultural intensification (Malthus upside-down)
Neo-malthusian theory that builds upon Malthus’ thoughts on overpopulation. Takes into count two factors that Malthus did not: population growth in LDC’s, and outstripping of resources other than food
Created by: lakeidra98 on 2012-09-24



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