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A&P 1-Lecture Test 1

Chapters 1-3

Anatomy the scientific discipline that investigates the body's structure
Cytology examines the structural features of cells
Histology the study of tissues and the materials surrounding them
gross anatomy the study of structures that can be examined without the aid of a microscope
anatomic imaging involves the use of x-rays, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and other technologies to create pictures of internal structures
physiology the scientific investigation of the processes or functions of living things
organelle a small structure contained within a cell that performs one or more specific functions
cell the basic living units of all plants and animals
tissue a group of cells with similar structure and function that have extracellular substances located between them
organs composed of 2 or more tissue types that perform one or more common functions
organism any living thing considered as a whole
metabolism ability to use energy to perform vital functions, such as growth, movement, and reproduction
differentiation changes in cell structure and function from generalized to specialized
reproduction the formation of new cells or new organisms
homeostasis the existence and maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body
variables conditions with values that can change
set point the ideal normal value
negative feedback any deviation from the set point is made smaller or resisted
3 components of negative feedback system receptor control center effector
receptor monitors the value of some variable
control center establishes the set point around which the variable is maintained
effector can change the value of the variable
deviation from set point is called? stimulus
positive feedback when a deviation from normal value occurs, the responds of the system is to make the deviation even greater
3 cavities of the trunk: thoracic abdominal pelvic
thoracic cavity surrounded by the rib cage and separated from the abdominal cavity by a muscular diaphragm
abdominal cavity bound by the abdominal muscles and contains stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, and kidneys
pelvic cavity a small space enclosed by the bones of the pelvis and contains the urinary bladder, part of the large intestine, and the internal reproductive organs
serous membranes cover the organs of the trunk and line the trunk cavities
visceral serous membranes cover the organs of the trunk
parietal serous membranes lines the trunk cavity
3 serous membranes of thoracic cavity: 1-pericardial 2,3-pleural cavities
pericardial cavity surrounds the heart
pleural cavity surrounds lungs
peritoneal cavity serous membrane lined cavity in the abdominopelvic cavity
superior higher, a structure above another
inferior lower, a structure below another
cephalic closer to the head than another structure
caudal closer to the tail than another structure
anterior the front of the body
posterior the back of the body
ventral toward the belly
dorsal toward the back
proximal closer to the point of attachment to the body than another structure
distal farther from the point of attachment to the body than another structure
lateral away from the midline of the body
medial toward the midline of the body
superficial toward or on the surface
deep away from the surface, interal
matter anything that occupies space and has mass
element the simplest type of matter with unique chemical properties
atom the smallest particle of an element that has the chemical characteristics of that element
atomic number the number of protons in each atom of an element
mass number the number of protons plus the number of neutrons in each atom of an element
isotopes 2 or more forms of the same element that have the same number of protons and electrons, but a different number of neutrons
ion a charged particle formed when an atom loses or gains electrons and the number of protons and electrons is no longer equal
cations positively charged ions
anions negatively charged ions
chemical bonding occurs when the outermost electrons are transferred or shared between atoms
3 categories of chemical bonds ionic bond covalent bond metallic bond
ionic bond complete transfer of electrons between 2 atoms
covalent bond when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
metallic bond the outermost electrons are shared equally among all the atoms in the sample
most common type of chemical bond? covalent bond
chemical reactions atoms, ions, molecules, or compounds interact either to form or break chemical bonds
reactants the substances that enter into a chemical reaction
products the substances that result from the chemical reaction
synthesis reactions when 2 or more reactants chemically combine to form a new and larger product
dehydration reactions synthesis reactions in which water is a product
decomposition reactions a larger reactant is broken down into 2 or more smaller products
hydrolysis reactions reactions that use water to split the reactant into 2 parts
anabolism synthesis reactions that occur in the body. Growth, maintenance, and repair of the body cannot take place without anabolic reactions
catabolism decomposition reactions that occur within the body. Examples are the digestion of food molecules and breakdown of fat stores.
Factors that influence the rate of chemical reactions: 1-how easily the substances REACT with one another 2-the CONCENTRATION of the reactants 3-TEMPERATURE 4-presence of a CATALYST
catalyst a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being permanently changed or depleted
enzyme an organic catalyst of biologic origin
energy the capacity to do work
potential energy stored energy that could do work, but is not doing so
kinetic energy the form of energy that actually does work
electric energy involves the movement of ions or electrons// a flow of electrons
chemical energy energy that's locked up in chemical bonds // results from the relative positions and interactions among a substance's subatomic particles
mechanical energy energy resulting from the position or movement of an object
heat the energy that flows between objects that are at different temperatures.
All forms of energy can be converted into heat energy
inorganic chemistry deals with those substances that do not contain carbon
organic chemistry the study of carbon-containing substances
2/3 of our body is water
The plasma portion of blood is _% water? 92
acid a proton donor
base a proton acceptor
ph scale the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution
OH- hydroxyl ion
H+ hydrogen ion
H+ concentration increases as substances are more ___ acidic
OH- increases as substances are more alkaline
ph scale is not linear, it is__ logarithmic
pH of hydrochloric acid (HCl) 0
pH of stomach acid 1
ph of lemon juice 2
ph of vinegar, cola, or beer 3
ph of tomatoes 4
ph of black coffee 5
ph of urine 6
ph of saliva 6.5
ph of water 7
ph of blood 7.4
ph of seawater 8
ph of baking soda 9
ph of Great Salt Lake 10
ph of household ammonia 11
ph of soda ash 12
ph of oven cleaner 13
ph of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 14
salt compounds formed by the interaction of an acid and base in which the hydrogen ions of the acid are replaced by the positive ions of the base (ex-HCl+NaOH=NaCl)
Buffer compounds that resist changes in solution ph when either acids or bases are added//donate or accept protons to keep ph the same
carbohydrate made primarily from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms and sued for quick energy and short term energy storage
monosaccharides "one sugar", the building blocks of larger carbohydrates ex-glucose
disaccharides composed of 2 simple sugars bound together through a dehydration reaction ex-sucrose=glucose+fructose
polysacchardies many monosaccharide units bound together to make long chains.
glycogen polysaccharide found in animals
polysaccharides found in plants starch and cellulose
isomers molecules that have the same number and types of atoms but differ in their 3 dimensional arrangement ex-glucose, fructose, and galactose are all C6H12O6
lipids structures such as fats and oils, they do not dissolve in water
fatty acids consist of a straight chain of carbon atoms with a carboxyl attached at one end
glycerol a three carbon molecule with a hydroxyl group attached to each carbon
triacylglycerols are also called triglycerides
what constitutes 95% of the fats in the human body triglycerides
saturated fatty acids contain only single covalent bonds between the carbon atoms, fully hydrogenated ex-butter, lard
carbon always has how many bonds? 4
unsaturated fats contain 1 or more double covalent bonds between the carbon atoms ex-olive oil, corn oil
double bonds make molecules more __ and more like a __ flexible, liquid
phospholipids similar to triglycerides, except that one of the fatty acids bound to the glycerol is replaced by a molecule containing phosphate
__ are important compononts of cell membranes phospholipids
_ have a hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail phospholipids
steroids lipids that have a structure that differs entirely from that of fats ex-cholesterol, estrogen, testosterone
proteins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen bound together by covalent bonds.
most proteins contain some __ sulfur
amino acids the building blocks of proteins
Protein Structure names 1-Primary 2-Secondary 3-Tertiary 4-Quaternary
Primary Structure of protein determined by the SEQUENCE of amino acids bound by peptide bonds
Secondary structure of proteins results from FOLDING/BENDING of the polypeptide chain caused by hydrogen bonds between amino acids
2 common shapes of folded polypeptide chains helices and pleated sheets
tertiary structure folding of the helices or pleated sheets
quarternary structure refers to the spatial relationship between protein subunits, when 2 or more proteins associate
active site the specific site where reactants must bind to the enzyme
cofactors non-protein substances that some enzymes require to be functional ex-magnesium & zinc ions and organic molecules
coenzymes organic molecules such as vitamins required to make certain enzymes functional
lipase catalyzes the breakdown of lipids
protease an enzyme that breaks down protein
DNA the genetic information of cells
RNA the 3 types of RNA play impoortant roles in protein synthesis
2 types of nucleic acids: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Who discovered DNA? Watson & Crick
When was DNA discovered? 1952
What book did Watson & Crick write? " The Double Helix "
nucleotides the basic building blocks of nucleic acids
components of nucleotides: monosaccharides (pentose sugar) nitrogenous base phosphate group
nitrogenous bases purines & pyrimidines
purines guanine & adenine
pyrimidines cytosine, thymine, and uracil
ATP consists of: adenine ribose sugar 3 phosphate groups
ATP is capable of storing and providing ___ energy
Calcium (Ca2+) part of bones and teeth; functions in blood clotting, muscle contraction, release of neurotransmitters
Sodium (Na+) membrane potentials, water balance
potassium (K+) membrane potentials
hydrogen (H+) acid-base balance
hydroxide (OH-) acid-base balance
Chloride (Cl-) water balance
bicarbonate (HCO3-) acid-base balance
ammonium (NH4+) acid-base balance
phosphate (PO43-) part of bones and teeth; functions in energy exchange, acid-base balance
Iron (Fe2+) red blood cell formation
Magnesium (Mg2+) necessary for enzymes
Iodide (I-) present in thyroid hormones
light microscopes allow us to visualize general features of cells
electron microscope used to study the fine structure of cells, much higher magnification
2 kinds of electron miscroscopes 1-scanning electron microscope (SEM) 2-transmission electron miscroscope (TEM)
scanning electron microscope allows us to see the features of the CELL SURFACE and the SURFACES of internal structures
transmission electron microscope allows us to see THROUGH parts of the cell and discover other aspects of cell structures
plasma membrane the outermost component of the cell, composed of a bilayer of phospholipids and cholesterol with proteins floating in the membrane
channel proteins one or more integral proteins arranged so that they form a tiny channel through the plasma membrane
receptor molecules proteins in the cell membrane with an exposed binding site on the outer cell surface
marker molecules cell surface molecules that allow cells to identify and attach to each other. These are mostly glycoproteins and glycolipids
cytoplasm- the cellular material outside the nucleus but inside the plasma membrane, it is about 1/2 cytosol and 1/2 organelles
cytosol consists of: fluid cytoskeletal cytoplasmic inclusions
fluid portion of cytosol a solution with dissolved ions, molecules, and a colloid with suspended molecules, mostly proteins. many of these proteins are enzymes
cytoskeletal portion of cytosol supports the cell and holds the nucleus and organelles in placea
cytoplasmic inclusions aggregates of chemicals either produced by the cell or taken in by the cell, ex: glycogen, hemoglobin
organelles small structures on the inside of the cell that are specialized for particular functions.
most organelles have double membranes that are similar to the plasma membrane
the number and type of organelles within each cell are related to the specific structure and function of that cell
nucleus (fx) control center of the cell; DNA within the nucleus regulates protein synthesis and therefore the chemical reactions of the cell
ribosome (fx) serves as site of protein synthesis
rough endoplasmic reticulum (fx) synthesizes proteins and transports them to Golgi apparatus
smooth endoplasmic reticulum (fx) manufactures lipids and carbohydrates, detoxifies harmful substances, stores calcium
golgi apparatus (fx) modifies, packages, and distributes proteins and lipids for secretion or internal use
mitochondria (fx) major sites of atp synthesis when oxygen is available
nucleus- enclosed by nuclear envelope, double membrane with nuclear pores, contains chromatin, DNA, and associated proteins
ribosome ribosomal RNA and proteins form large and small subunits; some are attached to ER whereas others are distributed through cytoplasm
RER membranous tubules and flattened sacs with attached ribosomes
SER membranous tubules and flattened sacs with no attached ribosomes
golgi apparatus flattened membrane sacs stacked on each other
mitochondria spherical, rod-shaped, or threadlike structures;enclosed by double membrane; inner membrane forms projections called cristae, open space called matrix
centrioles pair of cylindrical organelles in the centrosome, consisting of triplets of parallel microtubules
centrioles (fx) serve as centers for microtubule formation; determine cell polarity during cell division; form the basal bodies of cilia and flagella
cilia extensions of the plasma membrane containing doublets of parallel microtubules, 10 microns in length
cilia (fx) move materials over the surface of cells
flagellum extension of the plasma membrane containing doublets of parallel microtubules; 55 microns in length
flagellum (fx) propels sperm
microvilli extension of the plasma membrane containing microfilaments
microvilli (fx) increase surface area of the plasma membrane for absorption and secretion; modified to form sensory receptors
4 ways that substances can cross the plasma membrane 1-directly through lipid bilayer 2-through membrane channels 3-with carrier molecules in the membrane 4-in vesicles
diffusion the tendency for solute molecules to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
mediated transport mechanisms involve carrier molecules within the plasma membrane that move large water soluble molecules or electrically charged molecules across the plasma membrane
active transport a carrier mediated process that requires energy provided by ATP
endocytosis refers to the bulk of uptake of material through the plasma membrane by the formation of a vesicle
pinocytosis uptake of liquid by a cell
phagocytosis "cell eating" - when solid particles are ingested and phagocytic vesicles are formed
exocytosis secretory vesicles move to the plasma membrane and the contents of the vesicle are expelled from the cell
every three nucleotides is called a __ triplet code
a triplet code is a code for an amino acid
__ are the building blocks of proteins amino acids
2 steps in protein synthesis transcription translation
transcription - synthesis of mRNA on the basis of sequence of nucleotides in DNA
translation the synthesis of a protein at the ribosome in respond to the codons of mRNA
3 types of RNA messenger transfer ribosomal
messenger RNA a copy of the code to make a protein. It travels from the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
transfer RNA carries amino acids to the ribosome so they can be assembled into proteins
ribosomal RNA rna that is associated with certain proteins to form ribosomes
DNA replication occurs during INTERPHASE
Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that affects ___ chloride ion channels
how many types of cystic fibrosis? 3
In about 70% of CF cases, a defective channel protein fails to reach the plasma membrane from its site of production inside the cell
in 30% cases the channel protein is incorporated into the plasma membrane but does not functional normally or ATP binds to the channel protein but the channel does not open
affected cells of CF___ produce thick, viscous secretions
CF affects many cell types, but most profound effects are in the __ & __ pancrease, lungs
In the CF pancreas, thick secretions block the release of digestive enzymes, resulting in an inability to digest certain types of food and sometimes leading to pancreatitis
In the CF lungs, thick secretions block airways, making breathing difficult
sonogram ultrasound image
computed tomographic scan (CT)
dynamic spatial reconstruction (DSR)
digital subtraction angiography (DSA)
magnetic resonance imaging
positron emission tomographic scan (PET)
Created by: juliannab