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Chapter 2: Preconception Nutrition

How do you achieve fertility? complicated processes that can be disrupted by a number of factors related to body composition and dietary intake
What are oral contraceptives and contraceptive implants capable of doing to nutritional status? adversely affecting some aspects
What type of nutritional status before pregnancy enhances the likelihood of conception and helps insure a healthy newborn? optimal
___% of couples are infertile 15%
___% of couples diagnosed as "infertile" will conceive within ____ years without use of technology. 40%; 3
Healthy couples have a ____-____% chance of conception within a given menstrual cycle. 20-25%
miscarriage loss of conceptus in 1st 20 weeks of pregnancy
What are some causes of miscarriage? defect in fetus maternal infection structural abnormalities of uterus endocrine or immunological disturbances
Subfertility reduced level of fertility characterized by unusually long time for conception NOT INFERTILITY
___% of couples are infertile 18%
What are some causes of SUBfertility having multiple missacarriages sperm abnormalities infrequent ovulation
Puberty period in which humans become biologically capable of reproduction
Ova eggs females produce and store within the ovaries (they are born with all their possible eggs at birth)
Menstrual Cycle 4 week interval in which hormones direct buildup of blood and nutrient stores within uterus; ovum matures and is relaeased
When does the development of the reproductive systems start? during the first months after conception and continues to grow into puberty
When does our capacity for reproduction start? established during puberty when hormal changes stimulate maturation of reproduction system
What drives our reproductive system? hormones
Women are born with a life-time supply of ___ million immature ova. 7
~____ ova will mature and be released during the fertile years 400-500
Chromosomes in the ova can be damaged by.... oxidation radioactive particle exposure aging
Women over the age of ___ are mre likely to have children with ____ related to _____ than younger women. 35; chromosomal defects
For men, ____ production begins during ___. sperm; puberty
Sperm production ____ after age ____ with ____ continuing to ____. decreases; 35; old
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates pituitary to release FSH and LH
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates maturation of ovum and sperm
Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates secretion of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone
Estrogen stimulates the release of what other hormone? GnRH in follicular phase and follicle growth and maturation of follicle
Estrogen also stimulates what 2 things within the uterus? vacularity and stoage of glycogen, along ith other nutrients
Progesterone prepares uterus for fertilized ovum, increases vacularity of endometrium, and stimulates cell division of fertilized ova
Follicular Phase first half of menstrual cycle
What happens during the Follicular Phase? follicle growth and maturation
What are the main hormones involved with the Follicular Phase? GnRH, FSH, estrogen, and proestrogen
Luteal Phase last half of menstrual cycle
When does the Luteal Phase occur during the process of ovulation? after ovulation
What is formed during the Luteal Phase? corpus luteum
What 2 hormones are involved in the Luteal Phase and what happens to them/ what does it induce? decrease in estrogen and progestrone stimulate menstrual flow
What is the source of cramps and in which phase is it present? postglandins; Luteal Phase
Estrogen and Progesterone work in what way together? synergistically
Which 3 interacting reproductive organs are involved in the male reproductive system? hypothalamus pituitary gland testes
Androgens testosterone
Where is sperm stored? epididymis
What is sperm released out of the penis as? semen
The epididymis is attached to what other organ? The testes
What are some sources of disruption in fertility? adverse nutritional eposure contraceptive use severe stress infection tubal damage or other structural damage chromosomal damage
What are some nutritional related disruptions in fertility? undernutrition weight loss obesity high exercise levels intake of specific foods and food components
Chronic Undernutrition caused by no regular access to food; primary effect is the birth of small frail infants wtih high likelihood of death in the first year of life
Acute Undernutrition associated wtih a dramatic decline in fertility that recovers when food intake does ex. the dutch famine bad to good and things were back to normal
When there's undernutrition, do people still get pregnant? yes
Decreased fertility seen with ___ or ___ body fat due to alterations in ____ lo; high; hormones
Estrogen and leptin increased with ___ body fat and decreased with ___ body fat. high; low
Which two extremes of body fat lowers fertility? too much and too little
Infertility is lower with a BMI of what and what? less than 20 greater than 30
What is the effect of weight loss on fertility? losing greater than 10-15% of your usual weight decreases estrogen
Weight loss increases the likelihood of... amenorrhea anovulatory cycles short or absent luteal phases
Treating ____ women with this fertility drug is not effective. underweight; Clomid
Fertility in males decreases with ____, which was shown in a study during WWII starvation by 50%
When a man is _____, his sperm viability and motility decrease ____ to ____%. starving; 10, 15%
What is the main concern of intense physical activity? decreased bone density
Diet may impact ___. hormones
What are the main dietary practices that affect fertility? (correlations, not causes) vegetarian diets, low fat intake, high intake of fiber, soy, caffience, alcohol
Oxidative stress in men decreases and reduces what? decreases sperm motility reduces ability of sperm to fuse with nan egg
Oxidative stress in women harms and interferes with which two things? harms eggs and follicular development interfere with corpus luteum function interfere with implantation of the egg
Antioxidants vitamin e vitamin c beta-carotene selenium
Where are antioxidants found? veggies and fruits
What do antioxidants do to the reproductive system? protect the cells, including egs and sperm
What role does zinc play in men? it reduces oxidative stress sperm maturation testosterone synthesis
What has zinc been investigated for? potential infertility role
What type of diet has been associated with reduced ___ and _____ periods? low-fat, high fiber; irregular plant food diet
Isoflavones from soy, decreases levels of gonadotropins, estrogen, and progesterone
infertility rates are lower in women who use ___ supplements or ____ from plant foods iron; iron
What is linked to preterm delivery and low iron status of infant? pre-pregnancy iron deficiency
What percentage of women in the US enter pregnancy with inadequate ___ store? 50%; iron
What is the correlation with caffeine and pregnancy? caffeine appears to prolong the time to conception
Daily caffeine intake & reduction in conception is: 300mg results in ~27% decrease 500mg results in ~50% decrease
What effect does alcohol have on fertility? may decrease estrogen and testosterone lveles or disrupt menstrual cycle
What did studies show on the weekly drink consumption to conception? 1-5 drinks, 39% decrease greater than 10 drinks, 66% decrease
What do antioxidant nutrients do? protect sperm from oxidative damage
What has little effect on fertility? vitamin D
Alcohol intake has a toxic effect on what? testes
Exposure to what impacts males? heavy metals impacts sperm and testes
Effect of lead impacts testes and sperm
Effect of mercury decreases sperm and semen
What are some other factors that contribute to infertility in males? glycols, hormones (DDT), heat, steroid abuse
Oral contraceptives, contraceptive injections and contraceptive implants are all related to? weight gain, bad LDL cholesterol increase but increase in HDL also, blood clot risk increase, etc
Folate vs conception prevents neural tube defects
What did the government make mandatory in grains? fortified with folic acid
Diets for preconceptional women involve two things. moderation and variety
Why moderation and variety for a preconceptional women? Because then they will not get bored with their food choices and the extra nutrient amounts they need will be sufficient
Examples of model preconceptional nutrition programs WIC decreasing iron deficincy in preconceptional women in indonesia preconceptional care
What does the CDC recommend for primary health care visits? education screening for vaccination, weight, iron, and folate status assessment of alcohol use management of diabetes and celiac disease
Nutrition Care Process 1)assessemnt 2) diagnosis 3) intervention 4) monitoring and evaluation
Created by: starryeyes213