Energy it takes to remove an electron from an atom. Across L-R increasing because more protons means more pulling is needed as the shells get full. Down U-D decreasing because there are more shells that get in the way of the pull, so it is weaker.
the change in energy when gaining an electron in gases. Across L-R energy when forced to gain an electron increases because the shells get full. Down U-D decreasing because the shells are in the way and decrease the pull of the atom.
An atom's ability to attract electrons to itself. the stronger subtracts the weaker one to get electronegativity. Little difference means same 2 gases(covalent). Big difference means 2 different M+NM (ionic). Higher than 1.7 is considered ionic
radius size of elements. Across L-R decreasing because more protons. Down U-D increasing because of more shells.
having the same electron configuration as a noble gas.
when 2 of the same element bonds together
strong ionic bonds hold ions in lattice formation. extremely high melting point. solids
polar molecules, strong intermolecular bonds, higher melting point than non-polar, water.
non-polar molecules, weak intermolecular bonds, lower melting point than polar, gas
Iron(2) Oxide or Iron(3) oxide
Copper - (1)Cuprous, (2)Cupric
Mercury - (1)Mercurous, (2)Mercuric
Lead - (1)Plumbous, (2)Plumbic
the longer ending first. oUS hICcup