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Pituitary and Thyroid Diseases

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Term
Definition
Hyperfunction   due to prolonged hyperstimulation  
Hypofunction   due to destruction of secretory cells  
Tumors   most common cause of endocrine pathologies  
Prolactinomas   due to pituitary hyperfunction; tumors of prolactin-secreting cells  
Amenorrhea   lack of menstruation; symptom of prolactinomas  
Galactorrhea   spontaneous milk secretion; symptom of prolactinomas  
Bromocriptine   dopamine analog (inhibits PRL); pharmacological treatment of prolactinomas  
Somatotropic adenomas   tumors of hGH producing cells  
Gigantism   hyperstimulation of longitudinal skeletal growth; symptom of somatotropic adenomas  
Acromegaly   enlarged fingers, hands, toes, feet, nose, tongue, sloped forehead, protruding jaw & enlarged inner organs; symtom of somatotropic adenomas  
Corticotropic adenomas   tumors of ACTH-secreting cells  
Tumors of TSH, LH, FSH-secreting cells   symptom of somatotropic adenomas  
Pituitary hypofunction   congenital disorder; tumors, ischemia  
Panhypopituitarism   Simmond's disease; due to low levels of pituitary secretions; all cells affected  
Diabetes insipidus   due to lack of ADH caused by destructive lesions in the hypothalamus, infundibulum and/or posterior pituitary  
Parafollicular C cells   produce calcitonin  
Follicular cells   produce thyroid hormones T3 and T4  
Triiodothyronine   T3  
Thyroxine   T4  
Thyrotoxicosis   hyperthyroidism  
Grave's disease   autoimmune disorder caused by antibodies to TSH receptors; etiology of hyperthyroidism  
Nodular goiter   enlarged and nodular thyroid gland; etiology of hyperthyroidism  
Toxic adenoma   "hot nodules" on radioactive scans; etiology of hyperthyroidism  
exogenous thyroid medication   etiology of hyperthyroidism  
exophthalmos   bulging eyes; symptom of Grave's disease  
Hypothyroidism   due to developmental defects, thyroiditis, thyroidectomy or iodine deficiency  
Thyroiditis   immune-mediated inflammation of the thyroid gland where lymphocytes destroy thyroid follicles  
Thyroidectomy   removal of tumor  
Iodine deficiency   associated with goiter in hypothyroidism due to compensatory follicular hyperplasia  
Cretinism   retarded mental development due to lack of thyroid hormones  
Nodular goiter   due to functional disturbance (e.g., Grave's disease), iodine deficiency or neoplasms  
Adenomas   thyroid neoplasms found in 3-4% of adults  
Carcinomas   rare thyroid neoplasms with only 3-4/100,000 cases per year  
Papillary carcinoma   thyroid neoplasm that is slow progressing and hormonally inactive; 80% of cases  
Follicular carcinoma   more aggressive thyroid neoplasm, but good prognosis; 15% of cases  
Medullary carcinoma   C-cell carcinoma of thyroid; genetic link  
Anaplastic carcinoma   rare & extremely deadly thyroid neoplasm  


   





 
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Created by: MarilynKoch on 2007-03-03



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