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2011 TAKS Review-CYRANCH

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THOMAS JEFFERSON   WROTE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE  
GEORGE WASHINGTON   COMMANDER OF CONTINENTAL ARMY;1ST PRESIDENT  
COLONIAL GRIEVANCES IN DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE   QUARTERING SOLDIERS, NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION  
AMERICAN REVOLUTION (1776)   no taxation without representation; began when Declaration of Independence was signed; colonists first tried to solve problems  
MAGNA CARTA   LIMITED GOVERNMENT  
MAYFLOWER COMPACT   SELF GOVERNMENT  
FUNDAMENTAL ORDERS OF CONNECTICUT   FIRST WRITTEN CONSTITUTION  
ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS   TRIAL BY JURY; NO CRUEL/UNUSUAL PUNISHMENT;BEAR ARMS; NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION  
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE (1776)   BEGAN AMERICAN REVOLUTION; UNALIENABLE RIGHTS AND POPULAR SOVERIENGHTY  
ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION   ESTABLISHED REPUBLIC; PROBLEMS=WEAK CENTRAL GOVERNMENT, NO MONEY, BOUNDARY DISPUTES, QUARRELING WITH STATES, NO RESPECT FROM OTHER NATIONS  
US CONSTITUTION (1787)   James Madison; 2nd form of government; strong federal government; Bill of Rights to protect individual citizens  
LIMITED GOVERNMENT   GOVERNMENT IS NOT ALL POWERFUL/GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS NOT ABOVE THE LAW  
REPUBLICANISM   ELECT REPRESENTATIVES TO MAKE DECISIONS  
CHECKS AND BALANCES   PREVENTS ANY BRANCH FROM BECOMING TO POWERFUL  
SEPARATION OF POWERS   ALL POWER IF EVENLY DIVIDED BETWEEN EACH BRANCH  
POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY   PEOPLE ARE THE SOURCE OF POWER FOR GOVERNMENT  
INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS   makes sure the govt cannot take advantage of individual citizens; seen in Bill of Rights  
FEDERALIST PAPERS   written to convince Americans to ratify the Constitution; written by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, John Adams  
NULLIFICATION CRISIS   S. Carolina tried to nullify a tariff, President Jackson refused to let them= compromise tariff; both sides happy; causes sectional crisis in pre-Civil War era  
MANIFEST DESTINY   God ordained America to strech from “sea to shining sea”; reason we annexed Texas and Oregon  
CAUSES OF CIVIL WAR   states rights, slavery, tariff disputes, different eco, cultural differences  
CIVIL WAR   1861-1865 WAR BETWEEN NORTH AND SOUTH  
RECONSTRUCTION   PLAN TO REBUILD US AFTER THE CIVIL WAR; REPS CONTROLLED THE NATION AND THE SOUTH  
13th Amendment:   Reconstruction era; made former slaves citizens  
14th Amendment:   Reconstruction era; made former slaves citizens  
15th Amendment:   Reconstruction era; gave former male slaves the right to vote  
Homestead Act:   150 acres of land for $10 fee; had to live on land for 5 years; drew settlers west and made the Great Plains a major agricultural area  
Dawes Act:   divided reservation land into individual lots; intended for Indians to farm= men hated farming b/c it was women’s work  
Growth of Railroads:   easier to ship goods; RR major consumer of steel, timber & coal; Central Pacific & Union Pacific form transcontinental RR to link East & West coasts  
Growth of Labor Unions:   goals= shorter work weeks, better pay, safer conditions, end child labor  
Growth of Cities:   urbanization= rapid growth= crowded tenements; mass transport a problem  
Farm Issues:   OVERPRODUCTION=LOW PRICES;HARSH WEATHER, LACK OF WATER AND LUMBER  
Rise of Big Business:   natural resources, work force= immigrants/ migrants; new inventions/ technology; government gave land grants & loans; laissez faire practices; RR  
Child Labor:   unsafe working conditions; low pay; no time for school; Wilson 1st president to regulate (Progressive goal)  
Immigration:   23 million immigrants come to America & settle in NY, Boston, Chicago; mostly Southeastern European & Jews; unskilled workers; limited English  
Anti-Immigration Laws:   Nativists passed the Chinese Exclusion Act and the National Quotas Act to keep immigrants out  
Americanization:   idea to send immigrant children to school to learn English, the Pledge of Allegiance, and other American ideals  
William “Boss” Tweed:   party boss of Tammany Hall (Democratic political machine in NYC); he provided services to immigrants for votes; he swindled $ from the government; Thomas Nast a political cartoonist brought down the Tweed Ring  
Telephone & telegraph:   new technologies; advanced communication in business and personal life; Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone  
Incandescent light bulb & oil-based products:   provided lighting so businesses could operate after dark  
Andrew Carnegie:   Industrialists; brought the Bessemer process for making stronger, better steel to America; vertical integration to cut costs  
John D. Rockefeller:   Industrialist; Standard Oil; horizontal integration to eliminate competition= monopoly  
Theodore Roosevelt:   2nd in command of Rough Riders in SPAM War; as president issued the Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine  
Woodrow Wilson:   president; moral diplomacy= won’t recognize oppressive rulers; sent troops after Pancho Villa; president during World War I  
John Pershing:   commander of the 9th and 19th Negro Calvary during SPAM War  
Henry Cabot Lodge:   led opposition to Treaty of Versailles because of the League of Nations  
Alfred T. Mahan:   wrote the book, the Influence of Sea Power; made the plan for the development of the US Navy & imperialism  
Building of Panama Canal:   faster travel time for Navy & trade; problem= mosquitoes carry malaria and yellow fever= to solve, drain & burn swamps  
US Imperialism:   Manifest Destiny fulfilled, so America looked for markets outside of the US  
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine:   Issued by President Roosevelt, America could intervene in the problems of Latin America  
Open Door Policy:   China would remain open to trade with all nations  
Dollar Diplomacy:   America would intervene in problems where our business investments were at stake  
Spanish-American War (1898):   made America a world power; control of Cuba, Philippines, Guam & Puerto Rico  
WWI   (1914-1918): MAIN= militarism, alliances, imperialism, nationalism; America joins in 1917= SLUTZ Sussex Pledge, Lusitania, Unrestricted submarine warfare, ties with Britain, Zimmerman Telegram; Allied Powers= Britain, France, Russia, Italy, Americ  
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare:   the main reason America joins WWI  
Zimmerman Telegram:   German diplomat tried to convince Mexico to join WWI by offering them Texas if the Central Powers won  
Great Migration:   African Americans migrate north during WWI to find better paying jobs  
Battle of Argonne Forest:   WWI; Pershing led the forces that shattered Germany’s defenses  
Wilson’s 14 Points:   tried to solve the MAIN reasons why WWI began; self determination a major goal; proposed League of Nations  
Treaty of Versailles:   Allied leaders rejected 14 Points b/c they wanted to punish Germany; accepts League of Nations; Germany blameed for war, reduced military, & pay high reparations  
Theodore Roosevelt:   Republican; Meat Inspection Act, Pure Food & Drug Act, conservation, Trust Buster, 1st president to arbitrate a labor dispute  
William H. Taft:   Republican; Children’s Bureau to investigate and publicize child labor; Mann Elkins Act increased the power of the Interstate Commerce Commission  
Woodrow Wilson:   Democrat; 17, 18, 19th Amendment; Federal Reserve Act to establish Federal Reserve bank to regulate interest rates; Federal Trade Commission to monitor businesses; Keating Owens Act to prohibit child labor  
Susan B. Anthony:   women’s rights activist; fought for women’s suffrage  
W.E.B. DuBois:   African American activist; helped found the NAACP; believed voting was essential to end discrimination and lynching  
Robert LaFollette:   governor of Wisconsin; wanted the direct primary vote to make it more democratic and to break the power of party bosses  
Initiative:   makes govt more democratic; citizens can introduce laws to legislature  
Referendum:   makes govt more democratic; citizens vote on laws before they go into effect  
Recall:   makes govt more democratic; hold new elections to get rid of bad politicians  
Teapot Dome Scandal and Watergate Scandal   cause people to distrust government  
Interstate Commerce Commission:   1st federal law designed to regulate interstate commerce  
Sherman Anti-trust Act:   1890- made monopolies or trusts illegal; hard to enforce  
16th Amendment:   direct tax on income not land  
17th Amendment:   direct election of senators  
Meat Inspection Act:   federal inspection of meat; reaction to Upton Sinclair’s, The Jungle  
Conservation:   called Americans to preserve the US’s natural resources & regulate their use  
Eugene Debs:   Third Party Movement; 1912 election he ran as the American Socialist Party candidate; he won nearly 1 million votes  
THE 1920’S &1930’S    
Red Scare:   Fear of communism after WWI; leads to Palmer Raids and deportation of immigrants  
Prohibition:   18th Amendment= banned alcohol  
Flappers:   changing role of women; young, stylish women; sought freedom and escape from Victorian ideals; wore short skirts, short hair; smoked cigarettes and drank prohibited alcohol  
Harlem Renaissance:   outpouring of African American arts= literature & music; began in Harlem NYC; Langston Hughes leading voice  
Scopes Trial:   John Scopes taught evolution, was arrested, and put on trial  
Clarence Darrow/ William J. Bryan:   Darrow defended Scopes; WJB was the prosecutor  
Charles A. Lindbergh:   1st solo transatlantic flight; Spirit of St. Louis; showed America’s ingenuity  
Herbert Hoover:   1st president during Great Depression; despite what most Americans thought, he tried some government regulation and public works projects to help  
Franklin D. Roosevelt: 2   2nd president during Great Depression; New Deal= his domestic program to help the devastating impact of the Depression; used fireside chats to comfort Americans  
John Steinbeck:   The Grapes of Wrath about Oakies moving to California to flee the Dust Bowl  
18th Amendment:   Prohibition of alcohol  
19th Amendment:   women’s suffrage  
21st Amendment:   ended prohibition  
Henry Ford/ Application of Assembly Line to Car Production:   used assembly line to make cars faster & cheaper= Americans can buy more cars  
Causes of Prosperity in the 20’s:   rise of new industries (cars/ consumer goods); easy credit; supply-side eco= reduce govt spending & taxes; welfare capitalism= workers share co benefits  
Causes of the Great Depression:   uneven distribution of wealth; stock market crash; high tariffs & war debts; farmers overproduce; banks made risky loans  
Stock Market Crash (1929):   over speculation; margin buying; stock pools= inflated prices; Federal Reserve raised the interest rates  
Effects of the Great Depression:   widespread hunger, poverty & unemployment; widespread economic crisis; leads to Democratic victory in 1932 election FDR  
Dust Bowl/ Oakies:   severe drought & dust storms caused farmers more financial problems; Oakies= people from Oklahoma trying to escape fled to Cali only to find more financial problems  
New Deal:   FDR’s plan for the Great Depression; relief, recovery, reform; create jobs & public works; helped but did not end the Depression  
Social Security:   New Deal program; aid to the elderly & retired workers over 65  
FDIC:   New Deal program; Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation; insured bank deposits= restored confidence in banks  
SEC:   New Deal program; Securities & Exchange Commission; federal regulation of the stock market & companies & their stocks  
FDR and Court Packing:   Supreme Court did not support New Deal programs, so FDR tried to increase the number of justices so he could appoint 6 new ones; the plan failed  
WORLD WAR II: (1941-1945)    
FDR:   president; served 3 terms  
Harry Truman:   president after FDR died; he made decision to drop the atomic bomb  
Adolph Hitler:   leader of Nazi Germany  
Omar Bradley:   commander of American forces landing at Omaha & Utah beaches at D-Day  
Dwight Eisenhower:   Supreme Allied Commander in European theater of war  
Douglas MacArthur:   American General in the Philippines; he said, “I shall return.”  
George Marshall:   Chief of Staff Army; he increased & modernized the Army; FDR’s advisor  
George Patton:   General in Italian campaign; helped lead to Mussolini’s arrest  
Albert Einstein:   informed FDR about the possibility of an atomic bomb  
Invasion of Normandy (D-Day):   Allies needed to open a second front in the west to help take the pressure off of Russia in the east; code named Operation Overlord  
Holocaust:   6 million European Jews were killed by the Nazis  
Japanese-   American Internment: federal government moved Japanese Americans off of California’s coast for fear of spying; violated constitutional rights  
Fighting on multiple fronts:   major mistake for Hitler to invade Russia; it will cause him to lose  
Battle of Midway:   turning point in the Pacific; severely hurt Japan’s Navy  
Pearl Harbor:   12/7/41; Japan attacks America; mistake because America will join WWII  
Home Front:   Rosie the Riveter- campaign to draw women into the workforce, rationing- unlike WWI, America rations copper, rubber, food, nylon, gas, etc. to supply the war effort  
End of Depression:   WWII ends the economic crisis or Great Depression  
Atomic Bomb:   Truman used a- bombs to make the Japanese surrender; Hiroshima & Nagasaki  
Harry S. Truman:   Fair Deal; GI Bill; 2nd Red Scare= Loyalty Review Programs, HUAC, Senator McCarthy; Containment= Marshall Plan, NATO, Korean War begins  
Dwight D. Eisenhower:   suburban growth, baby boom, Federal Hwy Act, polio vaccine, rock n’ roll, Korean War ends, Sputnik, U2 Incident, CIA  
John F. Kennedy:   New Frontier; moon program; Alliance for Progress; Peace Corps; Berlin Wall; Ball of Pigs; Cuban Missle Crisis  
Lyndon B. Johnson: Great Society=   Civil Rights Act 1964/ 65/ 68, VISTA, Head Start, War on Poverty; escalated Vietnam War because of Gulf of Tonkin Resolution  
Election of 1948:   Truman (D) fought to win a surprising victory over Thomas Dewey (R)  
Truman Doctrine:   part of Containment policy; sent financial aid to Greece & Turkey  
Marshall Plan:   part of Containment policy; sent financial aid to W. Europe to rebuild after WWII  
NATO:   part of Containment policy; North Atlantic Treaty Organization= mutual defense alliance  
Berlin Airlift:   tested Containment; response to Soviet aggression; Truman airlifted supplies to W. Berlin to keep it from falling to Communist E. Germany  
GI Bill of Rights:   gave loans to WWII veterans to buy homes, go to college & start businesses  
Second Red Scare/ McCarthyism:   Senator Joseph McCarthy accused government officials of being Communists; lost popularity when he accused Army officials  
Polio Vaccine:   developed by Jonas Salk; kept epidemics from spreading  
TV:   commercials & mass advertisement; visibility for national figures (sports & politics); by 50s most families owned one; shared American experience  
Rock n’ Roll:   expression of teens nonconformity in the 50s; evidence of generation gap  
Korean War:   began under Truman & ends under Eisenhower; response to Soviet aggression; no victory but containment  
Sputnik I (1957):   USSR launched first satellite; Ike gives $$ to science & math education  
Effects of Cold War (Competition):   space race and arms race  
Debates for 1960 Election:   first televised debates  
Berlin Wall:   JFK’s administration; E. Germany built it to keep people from escaping to the West  
Cuban Missile Crisis:   JFK’s administration; close to nuclear war; USSR removes missiles from Cuba & US agrees not to invade Cuba & to remove missiles from Turkey  
CIVIL RIGHTS    
Martin Luther King Jr./ SCLC:   Used civil disobedience; organized Montgomery Bus Boycott; founded Southern Christian Leadership Conference; influenced by Ghandi  
Malcolm X/ Nation of Islam:   member of Nation of Islam; advocated rights by “any means necessary”; influenced by Elijah Muhammed  
Plessy v. Ferguson :   Established “separate but equal” doctrine  
Brown v. Board of Education:   ended segregation; separate is “inherently unequal”; Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas first to integrate  
University of California v. Bakke:   kept affirmative action but outlawed quotas  
Affirmative Action:   called for companies and institutions to actively recruit African American employees with the hopes to improve their social and economic status  
Reynolds v. Simms:   “one man one vote”; apportionment voting in most states was uncon.  
SNCC/ Sit-ins:   Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee; along with CORE they organized sit-ins of white’s only lunch counters to challenge segregation  
Civil Rights Act of 1964:   most important civil rights legislation; barred segregation in all public facilities; enforced by refusing federal funds for violators  
Voting Rights Act of 1965:   outlawed literacy tests  
Title IX:   prohibited federally funded schools from discriminating against girls  
Lyndon Johnson:   escalated the Vietnam War the most because of Gulf of Tonkin Resolution  
Richard M. Nixon:   Vietnamization; War Powers Act because he bombed Cambodia; resigned due to the Watergate Scandal  
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution:   Congress gave war powers to LBJ= disrupted checks & balances  
War Powers Act:   limited president’s war powers because Nixon bombed Cambodia  
Vietnamization:   Nixon’s idea to increase S. Viet Army while pulling American troops home  
26th Amendment:   gave 18-year-olds the right to vote due to Vietnam War draft  
Kent State:   protests against bombing Cambodia leads to National Guard shooting 4 students  
Watergate Scandal:   Nixon resigned b/c of the break-in of the Dem Natl HQ; made Americans distrust government officials  
Impact of computers:   improved standard of living; due to space program  


   





 
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Created by: cyranchush on 2011-04-05



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