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Atoms & Elements

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Pure Substance   1 type of substance definite composition cant be separated by physical processes  
Pure Substance Element   Cant be separated into simplier sustances by chemical means ex: copper Cu, Lead Pb, Aluminum Al  
Pure Substance Compound   Can be separated into simplier substances by chemical means Ex: salt, table sugar  
Mixtures   2 or more types of substances r physically NOT chemically mixed variable composition Can be separated by physical process  
Homogeneous Mixtures (solution)   composition is uniform thru out,dif parts mixture not visible *once mixed cant separate* Ex: koolaid  
Heterogeneous Mixtures   compostion of substances not uniform, comp varies from one part mixture to another Ex: pennies in a bag..dont know what ur grabbing  
Elements   Pure substances that cant be separated into simplier substances by ordinary lab processes & building blocks of matter  
Symbol   represents name of the element consists of 1 or 2 letters starts with a capital letter  
Physical properties of Elements   are Observed & measured w/out changing its identity ie; shape, color,odor,taste,density, melting/boiling point  
Periodic Table   Elements arranged by similiar properties  
Groups (periodic table)   contain elements w/similiar properties in vertical columns  
Periods (periodic tables)   horizontal rows of elements  
Group 1   Alkali metals: Lithium (L) Sodium(Na) Potassium (K)  
Group 2   Alkaline Earth Metals Ex: Magnesiun(Mg) Calcium(Ca)Barium (Ba)  
Group 7   Halogens Chlorine(Cl) Iodine(I) Flourine(F)Bromine(Br)  
Group 8   Noble Gases Helium(He)Neon(Ne)Argon(Ar)  
Zig Zag line info   starts @Boron (B) ends @Astatine(At) separates metals(left)& non metals(Right)Metalloids located on zigzag  
zigzag line elements   B,Si,Ge,As,Sb,Te,Po,At  
Metals   Shiny, ductile, good conductor heat & electricity  
Non Metals   dull, brittle, poor conductors, good insulators.  
Metalloids   better conductors than non metals,as good as metal,used as semi conductors & insulators  
Daltons Atomic theory   atoms are tiny particles of matter elements r similiar & different form other elements, 2+ diff elements combine to form compound rearranged to form new combos in chem.reaction  
Subatomic Particles   found in atoms;Protons= + Electron= - Neutron= Neutral charge **like charges repel & unlike charges attract**  
Atom Structure   Nucleus that contains protons & neutrons & electrons in the lrg empty space around nucleus  
Atomic Mass scale   1 mass unit(amu)has mass = to 1/12 of mass of carbon-12 atom proton= 1.007(amu) Neutron=1.008(amu) Electron= 0.000549(amu)  
Atomic Number   specific for each element same for all atoms of an element = to # of protons in an atom, gives # of elecrons appears above symbol of an element  
Examples of Atomic # & Protons   Hydrogen has atomic # of 1; every H atom has 1 proton Carbon has atomic # of 6; every C atom has 6 protons Copper(Cu) has atomic # 29; every Cu atom has 29 protons  
Electron in Atoms   an atom of an element is electrically neutral;the net charge is zero! atom has = # of protons & electrons *number of protons = number of electrons* if element has 13 protons & 13 electrons the net charge is zero  
Mass Number   represents the number of particles in the nucleus # of P+ N+ = mass  
Isotopes   atoms with the same element but different mass number hv same # protons but diff # of neutrons  
Atomic Symbol   represents a particular atom of an element gives mass # in upper left corner & atomic # in lower left corner; gives # of protons, neutron & electrons  
proton   1+ charge found in nucleus 1AMU  
neutron   0 charge 1AMU found n nucleus  
electron   1-neg charge 0.0005(1/2000)AMU fond outside nucleus  
AMU atomic mass unit (Dalton)   defined as 1/12th of the Carbon atom w/6protons & 6 neutron, P+ N+ determine atomic mass)  
Atom   smallest particle of element that retains the characteristics  
Energy Levels   closest to nucleus lowest energy levels. 2n2(L2) is formula where n is. 2(2)2= 2(4)= E3- 2(3)2=2(9)=18  
Valence Electrons   outermost electron, highest energy levels & are related to the group # of element Group 1- # valence electrons=1  
Calculating Atomic Mass   % Isotope abundance divided by 100 X mass of isotope  
Orbital   3 dimensional space aropund nucleus ***can hold up t0 2 electron*** has shape that represents electron density  
S- Orbital   has spherical shape around nucleus & found in each energy level  
P-orbital   has a 2-lobed shape1 of 3 P orbitals in each energy level from n=2  
Electron Level arrangement   found only in first 18 elements  
Electron Dot Symbol   shows valence electrons around the symbol element. Group 1A-4A =1 dot group 5A-7A= use pairs & single dot  
Atomic size( atomic radius)   distance from nucleus to valence electrons....on periodic table- left to right decreases & top to bottom increase size...biggest in size bottom left corner  
Ionized energy   energy it takes to remove a valence electron. Metals hv lower Ionization, nonmetals hv higher ionization  


   





 
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Created by: Jennifer Lynn OBrien Brock Jennifer Lynn OBrien Brock on 2011-02-27



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