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Chem Grem Ch 3

Atoms & Elements

Pure Substance 1 type of substance definite composition cant be separated by physical processes
Pure Substance Element Cant be separated into simplier sustances by chemical means ex: copper Cu, Lead Pb, Aluminum Al
Pure Substance Compound Can be separated into simplier substances by chemical means Ex: salt, table sugar
Mixtures 2 or more types of substances r physically NOT chemically mixed variable composition Can be separated by physical process
Homogeneous Mixtures (solution) composition is uniform thru out,dif parts mixture not visible *once mixed cant separate* Ex: koolaid
Heterogeneous Mixtures compostion of substances not uniform, comp varies from one part mixture to another Ex: pennies in a bag..dont know what ur grabbing
Elements Pure substances that cant be separated into simplier substances by ordinary lab processes & building blocks of matter
Symbol represents name of the element consists of 1 or 2 letters starts with a capital letter
Physical properties of Elements are Observed & measured w/out changing its identity ie; shape, color,odor,taste,density, melting/boiling point
Periodic Table Elements arranged by similiar properties
Groups (periodic table) contain elements w/similiar properties in vertical columns
Periods (periodic tables) horizontal rows of elements
Group 1 Alkali metals: Lithium (L) Sodium(Na) Potassium (K)
Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals Ex: Magnesiun(Mg) Calcium(Ca)Barium (Ba)
Group 7 Halogens Chlorine(Cl) Iodine(I) Flourine(F)Bromine(Br)
Group 8 Noble Gases Helium(He)Neon(Ne)Argon(Ar)
Zig Zag line info starts @Boron (B) ends @Astatine(At) separates metals(left)& non metals(Right)Metalloids located on zigzag
zigzag line elements B,Si,Ge,As,Sb,Te,Po,At
Metals Shiny, ductile, good conductor heat & electricity
Non Metals dull, brittle, poor conductors, good insulators.
Metalloids better conductors than non metals,as good as metal,used as semi conductors & insulators
Daltons Atomic theory atoms are tiny particles of matter elements r similiar & different form other elements, 2+ diff elements combine to form compound rearranged to form new combos in chem.reaction
Subatomic Particles found in atoms;Protons= + Electron= - Neutron= Neutral charge **like charges repel & unlike charges attract**
Atom Structure Nucleus that contains protons & neutrons & electrons in the lrg empty space around nucleus
Atomic Mass scale 1 mass unit(amu)has mass = to 1/12 of mass of carbon-12 atom proton= 1.007(amu) Neutron=1.008(amu) Electron= 0.000549(amu)
Atomic Number specific for each element same for all atoms of an element = to # of protons in an atom, gives # of elecrons appears above symbol of an element
Examples of Atomic # & Protons Hydrogen has atomic # of 1; every H atom has 1 proton Carbon has atomic # of 6; every C atom has 6 protons Copper(Cu) has atomic # 29; every Cu atom has 29 protons
Electron in Atoms an atom of an element is electrically neutral;the net charge is zero! atom has = # of protons & electrons *number of protons = number of electrons* if element has 13 protons & 13 electrons the net charge is zero
Mass Number represents the number of particles in the nucleus # of P+ N+ = mass
Isotopes atoms with the same element but different mass number hv same # protons but diff # of neutrons
Atomic Symbol represents a particular atom of an element gives mass # in upper left corner & atomic # in lower left corner; gives # of protons, neutron & electrons
proton 1+ charge found in nucleus 1AMU
neutron 0 charge 1AMU found n nucleus
electron 1-neg charge 0.0005(1/2000)AMU fond outside nucleus
AMU atomic mass unit (Dalton) defined as 1/12th of the Carbon atom w/6protons & 6 neutron, P+ N+ determine atomic mass)
Atom smallest particle of element that retains the characteristics
Energy Levels closest to nucleus lowest energy levels. 2n2(L2) is formula where n is. 2(2)2= 2(4)= E3- 2(3)2=2(9)=18
Valence Electrons outermost electron, highest energy levels & are related to the group # of element Group 1- # valence electrons=1
Calculating Atomic Mass % Isotope abundance divided by 100 X mass of isotope
Orbital 3 dimensional space aropund nucleus ***can hold up t0 2 electron*** has shape that represents electron density
S- Orbital has spherical shape around nucleus & found in each energy level
P-orbital has a 2-lobed shape1 of 3 P orbitals in each energy level from n=2
Electron Level arrangement found only in first 18 elements
Electron Dot Symbol shows valence electrons around the symbol element. Group 1A-4A =1 dot group 5A-7A= use pairs & single dot
Atomic size( atomic radius) distance from nucleus to valence electrons....on periodic table- left to right decreases & top to bottom increase size...biggest in size bottom left corner
Ionized energy energy it takes to remove a valence electron. Metals hv lower Ionization, nonmetals hv higher ionization
Created by: 1298518297