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1st semester reveiw

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Companies that were backed by investors, people who put money into a project to earn profits.   Joint stock company  
A written contract, issued by a government, giving the holder the right to establish a colony.   Charter  
The first permanent English settlement, in honor of King James.   Jamestown  
A soldier and adventurer who took control of Jamestown and made it succesful.   John Smith  
A person who sold his/her labor in sxchange for passage to America.   Indentured Servants  
It was created in 1619, the first representative assembly in the American colonies.   House of Burgesses  
They were a separists group who rejected England's official church.To escape harsh punishments from King James, they escaped and founded Plymouth in 1620   Pilgrims  
An agreement established by the men who sailed to America on the Mayflower, which called for laws for the good of the colony and set forth the idea of self-government.   Mayflower Compact  
a memeber of a group from England that settled the massachusett Bay Colony in 1630 and sought to reform the practices of the church of England.   Puritans  
A set of laws that were established in 1639 by a puritan congregation who had settled in Connecticut valley and that expanded the idea of representative government.   Fundamental Orders of Connecticut  
A colony with a single owner.   Proprietary colony  
A quaker who founded Pennslyvania and it was given to him by King Charles the second.   William Penn  
A person who believed all people should live in peace and harmony; accepted different religions and ethnic groups.   Quaker  
A colony ruled by governors appointed by a king.   Royal Colony  
He founded Georgia as a refuge for debtors.   James Oglethorpe  
What were the seven motives for European exploration of North America?   They were religion, glory, wealth, trade routes, foreign goods, curiosity, and national pride.  
What were the motives for English colonization of North America?   They wanted freedom and seeing that there was nothing in Britain for them, and success accessed by other nations.  
What is the significance of 1607 and 1620?   Jamestown was the first sucessful colony in 1607 and New settlers landed in Plymouth in 1620, they were called pilgrims.  
What is the importance of the Magna Carta, House of Burgesses, Mayflower Compact and Funamental orders of Connecticut?   They were all a difeerent type of gorvernment and they were also the first type of those governemtns.  
A colonial region that ran alaong the Appalachian Mountains through the far western part of the New england, Middle, and Sounthern colonies.   Backcountry  
A farm that produces enough food for the family with a small additional amount for trade.   Subsistence farming  
The transatlantic system of trade in which goods, including slavery, were exchanged between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in North America.   Traiangle trade  
A series of laws passes by Parliament, beginning in 1651, to ensure that England made money from colonies' trade.   Navigation acts  
To illegally import or export goods.   Smuggling  
A crop grown by a farmer to be sold for money rather than for personal use.   Cash crop  
A variety of people.   Diversity  
A plant grown in the Southern colonies that yeilds a deep blue dye.   Indigo  
A worker hired by a planter to watch over and direct the work of slaves.   Overseer  
a mountain range that strecthes from eastern Canada south to Alabama.   Appalachian Mountains  
What were the ecnomic reasons for the establishment of the 13 colonies?   They were trade routes and foreign goods.  
What were the social reasons for the establishment of the 13 colonies?   They were for religion, to get away from England a while and for glory.  
How did England try to control the colonies and their trade?   Parliament passed the Navigation acts to recieve part of the colonies profits.  
What was the significance of the triangular trade?   The colonies traded with the west indies and africa they all traded and did it over and over again?  
Explain the reasons for the development of the plantation system?   The plantation ecnomy was growing and the plantation owners didnt have enough laborers and turned to enslaved Africans for labor.  
What was the significance of the triangular trade?   The colonies traded with the west indies and africa they all traded and did it over and over again?  
Explain the reasons for the development of the plantation system?   The plantation ecnomy was growing and the plantation owners didnt have enough laborers and turned to enslaved Africans for labor.  
Explain the reasons for the development of the plantation system?   They are all pretty big regions its just that New England has the oceans and Southern has the biggest land and Middle has the cash crops.  
Describe the major ecnomic activites for each colonial region.   New England's biggest ecnomic activity is fishing, whaleling, and shipping. Middle is the cash crops and Southern the Slaves.  
A revival of religious feeling in the American colonies during the 1730s and 1740s.   Great Awakening  
He is one of the best-known preachers that terrifies the listeners with images of God's anger.   Jonathan Edward  
He is another best-known preachers that drew thousands of people and raised funds to start a home for orphans.   George Whitefield  
An 18th-century movement that emphasized the use of reason and the scientific method to obtain knowledge.   Enlightment  
He was a famous American Enlightment figure and among other things.   Benjamin Franklin  
He was a English philosopher that people have natural rights, they are to life, liberty, and property.   John Locke  
A group of noblemen forced King John to accept the magna charta. It guarenteed rights to noblemen and freemen. They could not have their property seized by the king or his officials and they couldn't be taxed unless a council of prominent men agreed.   Magna Carta  
England's cheif lawmaking body.   Parliament  
A hands-off policy of England toward its American colonies during the first half of the 1700s.   Salutary neglect  
He was a publisher of the New-York Weekly Journal and he was stood trial for printing critisism of New York's governor.   John Peter Zenger  
A Conflict in North America from 1754 to 1763 that was part of a worldwide struggle between France and Britain; Britain defeated France and gained French Canada.   French and Indian War  
The first formal proposal to unite the American colines, put forth by Benjamin Franklin.   Albany Plan of Union  
The 1763 treaty that ended the French and Indian war; Britain gained all of North America east of the Mississippi river.   Treaty of Paris 1763  
An order in which Britain prohibited its American colonists from settling west of the west Appalachian Mountains.   Proclamation of 1763  
A revolt against Brtish forts and American settlers in 1763, led in part by Ottawa war leader Pontiac, in response to settlers' claims of Native American lands and to harsh treatments by Britsh soldiers.   Pontiac's Rebellion  
What was the Great Awakening and what was its impact on the American colonies?   It spread religion all over the colonies and preacher went colony to colony spreading all religious movement.  
What was the Enlightment and what was its impact on the American colonies?   A scientific movement that changed all of America. It made them smarter.  
What was the Albany Plan of Union? Whose idea was it?   It was made by Benjamin Franklin and it proposed that the colonies all join together to fight the British. It was either join or die.  
What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris 1763?   It ended the French and Indian war and Brtish took control of most of France's land.  
How did Parliament try to limit the expansion of the colonies in 1763?   It passed the Proclamation of 1763 which denied west ward expansion.  
He was a British monarch wgo wanted to enforce the proclamation and also keep peace with Britain's Native American allies.   King George III  
A law passes by Parliament in 1765 that required the colonies to house and supply British soldiers.   Quartering Act  
A 1765 law passed by Parliament that required all legal and commericial documents to carry a offcial stamp showing a tax has been paid.   Stamp Act  
He is a member of Viginia's House of burgesses who called for resistance to the tax.   Patrick Henry  
A refusal to buy certain goods.   Boycott  
A group of colonists who formed a secret society to oppose British policies at the time of the American Revolution.   Sons of liberty  
A series of laws passed by Parliament in 1767 that suspended New York's assembly and established taxes on goods brought into the British colonies.   Townshend Acts  
A search warrant that allowed British officers to enter colonial homes or businesses to search for smuggled goods.   Writs of assistance  
He is the leader of the Boston Sons of Liberty.   Samuel Adams  
A clash between Brtish soldiers and Boston colonists in 1770, in which five of the colonists, including Crispus Attucks, were killed.   Boston Massacre  
A group of people in the colonies who exchanged letters on colonial affairs.   Committe of correspondence  
A group of men about 30 to 130 men, called the sons of liberty, disguised as natives boarded the ship one night and dummped all its tea in the harbor. Destroyed all 342 chests of tea into the water.   Boston Tea Party  
A series of laws enacted by Parliament in 1774 to punish Massachusetts colonists for the Boston Tea Party.   Intolerable Acts  
A meeting of delegates in 1774 from all the colonies except Georgia to uphold colonial rights.   1st Continental Congress  
He was a Boston silversmith and a second messenger who alerted the patriots that the Brtish were coming.   Paul Revere  
Colonists from the colonies who were still loyal to Britain.   Loyalists  
Colonists from the colonies who were against Britain.   Patriot  
It the was the first battle and it marked the beginning of the American Revolution.   Lexington and Concord  
A governing body whose delegates agreed, in May 1775, to farm the Continental Army and to approve the Declaration of Independence.   2nd Continental Congress  
He was an officer who played a role in the victory at Fort Ticonderoga.   Benedict Arnold  
He wrote the Declaration of Independence.   Thomas Jefferson  
The document, written in 1776, in which the colonies declared independence from Britain.   Declaration of Independence  
Why was Britain taxing the colonies?   They did not have a lot of money and were in debt so they just taxed everything.  
Why were the colonies upset by all the taxes being levied by the British?   The colonies had no representations in the taxes.  
What role did the Sons of liberty play in protesting the carious acts Britain passed?   The sons of liberty performed various acts that opposed the British taxes.  
What was the 1st Continental Congress and what did it accomplish?   It was a meeting of delegates in 1774 from all the colonies except Georgia to uphold colonial rights and they began to train troops and banned all trade with Britain.  
How was the Boston Massacre used to show that England was being unreasonable?   The Britsh soldiers got off clean even though they killed 4 laborers.  
What was the main idea behind the Declaration of Independence?   That America deserved its freedom and such.  
Give an example of an unalienable right.   They are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.  
He was the first commander of the Continental Army and the most repected man in America.   George Washington  
A professional soldier hired to fight for a foreign country.   Mercenary  
An overall plan of action.   Strategy  
A series of conflicts between Brtish soldiers and the Continental Army in 1777 that proved to be a turning point in the Revolutionary War.   Battle of Saratoga  
A long steel knife arrached to the end of a gun.   Bayonet  
To leave military duty without intending to return   Desert  
A privately owned ship that has government permission during wartime to attack and enemy's merchant ships.   Privateer  
He was the best officer in the Continental Navy who won the battle against Serapis.   John Paul Jones  
He was the british general who fought against General Heratio Gates and won.   Lord Cornwallis  
A soldier who weakens the enemy with suprise raids and hit-and-run attacks.   Guerrilla  
The last major battle of the Revolutionary War, which resulted in the surrender of Brtish forces.   Battle of Yorktown  
The treaty that ended the Revolutionary war, confirming the independence of the United States and setting the boundries of the new nations.   Treaty of Paris 1783  
George Wahington and his army camped at valley forge. The cold winter and lack of supplies killed about 2,000 of his men.   Valley Forge  
A 19-year-old French noblemen who volunteered to serve in Washinton's army.   Marquis de Lafayette  
What role did George Washington play in the American Revolutions?   He was the first commander of the Continental Army and won tons of battles against the British.  
What were conditions like at valley Forge?   The conditions were cold, freezing, and worse the army had lack of supplies, such as food, cloths, and other needs.  
How did the countries of Spain and France help the Americans?   After the battle of Saratoga, the Frech decided that the Americans can win the war and allied with them. France convinced Spain to join the fight with them so Spain allied with America too.  
What were the advantages of the Brtish during the war?   They had more people, more money, and more supplies.  
What were the advantages of the Americans during the war?   They had knowledge of the land, better generals, and better strategy.  
What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1783?   It confirmed the Independence of America and it set its boundry in America.  
A document, adopeted by the Continental Congress in 1777 and finally approved by the states in 1781, that outlined the form of government of the new Untied States.   Articles of Confederation  
A law that established a plan for surveying and selling the federally owned lands west of the Appalachian Mountains.   Land Ordinance of 1785  
Territory covered by the land ordinance of 1785, which included that formed the States of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and part of Minnesota.   Northwest Territory  
It described how the Northwest territory was to be governed and set condidtions for settlement and settlers' rights.   Northwest Ordinance  
An uprising of debtridden Massachusetts farmers in 1787.   Shay's Rebellion  
A meeting held in 1787 in Philidelphia to consider changes to the Articles of Confederation; resulted in the frafting of the Constitutions.   Constitutional Convention  
He was known as the father of the Constitution.   James Madison  
A plan proposed by Edmund Randolf, a delegate to the Constitutional Convention in 1787, that proposed a government with three branches and a two-house legislature in which representation would be based on a state's population or wealth.   Virginia Plan  
A plan of government proposed at the ConstitutionalConvention in 1787 that called for a one-house legislature in which each state would have one vote.   New Jersey Plan  
The Contituional Convention's agreement to establish a two-house nation legislature, with all states having equal representation in one house and each state having representation based on its population in the other house.   Great compromise  
The Constitutional Convention's agreement to count three-fifths of a state's slave as population for purpose of representative and taxation.   Three-Fifths Compromise  
Supporters of the Constituion   Federalists  
People who opposed the Constitution.   Anti-Federalists  
A series of essays defending and explaing the Constitution.   The Federalists Papers  
He was a anti-federalists that refused to sign the final documents until a bill of rights were added.   George Mason  
The first ten admentments to the U.S. Constituion, added in 1791, and consisting of a formal list of citiznes' rights and freedoms.   Bill of Rights  
What were the strenghts and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?   It was the basic form of the government of the U.S. but it wasn't a very good form of government because it gave the states most of the power.  
Explain what the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 did and why they were improtant to the future of the nation?   They gave the northwest territory to settlers across the Appalachian Mountains and they explained how to govern the Northwest Territry.  
What roles did George Washington, James Madison, Roger Sherman and Benjamin Franklin have at the Constitutional Convention?   They were the most famous men there and each were a part of the Constitution.  
Who were the leading Federalist and the leading Anti-federalists?   John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton were some of the leaders of the federalists. George Mason and Patrick Henry were some of the anti-federalists leaders.  
Why are the Federalist Papers significant?   It explains the Constitution and tells that it is the best for the nation.  
Why was the Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution?   The anti-federalists wouldn't sign until it was added.  
A government in which the people rule; a system in which the residents vote to decide an issue.   Popular Sovereignty  
The belief that government should be based on the consent of the poeple; people excercise their power for boting for political representatives.   Republicanism  
a system of government where power is shared among the central government and the states.   Federalism  
The division of basic government roles into branches.   Separation of Powers  
The ability of each branch of the government to exercise controls over the other branches.   Checks and Balances  
The Principle that requires all U.S. citizens and government officials to follow the law.   Limited Government  
A personal liberty and privilege guaranteed to U.S. citizens by the Bill of Rights.   Individual Rights  
The introduction of the Constitution.   Preamble  
Which Article of the Constitution discusses the power of the executive branch?   Article II  
Which Article of the Constitution discusses the power of the judicial branch?   Article III  
Which article of the Constitution discusses the power of the legislative branch?   Article I  
What is the purpose of a veto?   When the president doesn't like a bill he vetos it and the house of representatives vote 2/3 to pass it.  
Which amendment defines the 5 freedoms?   The first admendment. They were freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition.  
Which amendment was created due to the Quartering Act?   The third(Quartering Troops) admendment.  
The abuse of writs of assistance by the British led to which amendment?   The fourth (Search and Seizure) admendment.  
A political system in which the power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them.   Democracy  
The people who represent vote for the leaders of the government.   Republic  
A democracy having a parliament.   Parliamentary democracy  
A form of government where one leader or king has all the power.   Absolute, ceremonial and constitutional monarchies  
A form of government in which the ruler that does not follow by a constitution or laws.   Dictatorship  
A form of socialism that abolishes private ownership .   Communism  
Jamestown was founded by settlers and was the first succesful colony.   1607  
The pilgrims founded Plymouth.   1620  
The French and Indian war had begun.   1754  
The French and Indian war was over and the proclamation of 1763 was issued.   1763  
The Boston Massacre occured this year.   1770  
Parliament passed the Tea Act and the sons of liberty performed the Boston Tea Party.   1773  
The battle of Lexington and Concord also the beginning of the American Revolution occured.   1775  
The Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence and also George Washinton fought some battles that year.   1776  
The Battle of Saratoga was won by the Americans and the French decided to allied with them.   1777  
The Revolutionary war finally ended when the Treaty of Paris was created.   1783  
Shay's Rebellion took place this year and the constitutional convention occured.   1787  


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