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(Willis) Chapter 1

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Set apart or separated from other persons or things.   Isolated  
Adjusted oneself to something new, such as different conditions or environments.   Adapted  
The method or skill used to create something or complete a particular task.   Technique  
The external surroundings in which a plant or animal lives, which tend to influence its development and behavior.   Environment  
To influence or change.   Affect  
Person who studies and writes about the human past.   Historian  
A scientist who studies fossils & artifacts to learn how people lived long ago.   Archaeologist  
Any object made by people in the past that still exists today, such as weapons, tools, or other items.   Artifact  
The trace, imprint, or remains of a once-living thing from long ago, such as a plant or animal, that has been preserved in rock.   Fossil  
Scientist who learns about human life & culture by studying the physical characteristics and cultures of humans and their ancestors.   Anthropologist  
A person with no permanent home who regularly moves from place to place according to the seasons in search of food, water, and grazing land.   Nomad  
The application of tools, methods, & science to help humans perform tasks & adapt to their environment. For early humans, that meant things like stone tools & fire.   Technology  
To tame animals and plants for human use.   Domesticate  
A time period known as the “Old Stone Age” when humans made simple stone tools & lived nomadic lifestyles as hunters & gathers who followed animal migrations & vegetation cycles.   Paleolithic Age  
A time period known as the “New Stone Age” when humans began to domesticate plants & animals & live life in settled communities.   Neolithic Age  
A time period known as the Neolithic Revolution when people began the switch from a nomadic lifestyle of hunting & gathering to a settled lifestyle of systematic agriculture (farming).   Farming Revolution  
The development of different kinds of jobs that became possible when people had a surplus of food large enough so that not everyone had to farm.   Specialization  
The time before written records.   Prehistory  
Times of extreme cold when great sheets of ice covered parts of the earth.   Ice Ages  
A Neolithic community in present-day Turkey. It was home to about 6,000 people who lived in simple mud-brick houses between 6,700 B.C. & 5,700 B.C.   Catal Huyuk  
One of the earliest known Neolithic communities located in the West Bank between what are now Israel & Jordan. It dates back to about 8,000 B.C.   Jericho  
A complex society with cities, organized government, art, religion, class divisions, and a writing system.   Civilization  
A method of bringing water to a field from another place to water crops.   Irrigation  
An independent state made up of a city and the surrounding land and villages.   City-state  
A skilled craftsperson who produced items such as jewelry, weapons, or armor.   Artisan  
The Sumerian system of writing that is made up of wedge-shaped markings.   Cuneiform  
A record keeper or copier of documents who often worked as a high ranking government official.   Scribe  
A group of diverse territories or nations under the control of a single ruler or government.   Empire  
The king who created the first Babylonian Empire; he is known for his collection of laws called the “Code of Hammurabi” that covered most areas of daily life.   Hammurabi  
A flat plain known as the Fertile Crescent in what is now southern Iraq. Its boundaries are the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers & it is the site of the earliest known civilization.   Mesopotamia  
The region of southern Mesopotamia where many cities had formed by 3000 B.C. & where many important technological advancements took place.   Sumer  
A city and trade center built near the Euphrates River in the 1800s B.C. that would become one of the greatest cities of the Ancient world under rulers like Nebuchadnezzar.   Babylon  
A river in Southwest Asia that formed Mesopotamia along with Euphrates River.   Tigris River  
A river in Southwest Asia that formed Mesopotamia along with Tigris River.   Euphrates River  
The practice of buying, selling, or bartering for items that has helped to spread ideas around the world.   Trade  
The king of the Akkadians who conquered all of Mesopotamia & created the world's first empire.   Sargon  
A political district or territory governed as a part of a country or empire.   Province  
A group of traveling merchants and animals.   Caravan  
A person who studies stars, plants, and other heavenly bodies.   Astronomer  
People from the area of Assyria in northern Mesopotamia who conquered all of Mesopotamia, Israel, & Egypt with a large standing army, new military organization, & the large scale use of iron weapons.   Assyrians  
The removal and scattering of whole populations of people from their homelands with the intent of dividing them to prevent rebellions. This method was commonly used by the Assyrians.   Mass Deportation  
The King of Assyria who built the Great Library at Nineveh, from which much of our knowledge about ancient Mesopotamia has been gathered.   Ashurbanipal  
Also known as the Chaldeans. Led by Nebuchadnezzar, they overthrew the Assyrians and created a new empire in which Babylon became one of the greatest cities of the ancient world.   Babylonians  
A Library built at Nineveh by King Ashurbanipal that contained over 25,000 cuneiform tablets that covered religion, government, science, mathematics, medicine, & poetry like the Epic of Gilgamesh.   Great Library  
King of the Babylonians who led the rebellion that overthrew the Assyrians. He made Babylon one of the greatest cities on earth & built the legendary Hanging Gardens to please his homesick wife.   Nebuchadnezzar  
The capital of the Assyrian empire and the location of the Great Library of Ashurbanipal.   Nineveh  
Famous terraced gardens built by Nebuchadnezzar for his homesick wife. They were known as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.   Hanging Gardens  
Very cruel acts committed against someone. The Assyrians famously committed these against those they defeated, such as the cutting off of peoples ears, noses, fingers, & the gauging of their eyes.   Atrocities  


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Created by: chadmw on 2010-09-17

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