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# AICP Flash Cards

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Kevin Lynch   Professor of MIT, Author of Images of a City. This book defines basic concepts within the city, such as edges and nodes
Ebenezer Howard   Author of "Garden Cities of Tomorrow" and "Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform" Associated with Garden Cities and famously with Radburn, New Jersey
Jane Jacobs   Authored "The death and life of American Cities" The book provided a critical look at planners and planning, with a special focus on the mistakes of urban renewal.
Rachel Carson   Authored "Silent Springs" which focused on the negative effects of the use of herbicides and pesticides.
Fredrick Law Olmstead Sr.   Co-designer of Central Park in NYSite Planner for the 1893 Columbia Exposition.
Ian McHarg   Authored "Design with Nature". This book focuses on conservation design. Renowned for his layering technique that created the foundation for GIS.
Fredirck Law Olmstead Jr.   1st President of the American City Planning Institute. Played an important role in shaping the standard city enabling Act of 1928/
Alfred Betman   Lawyer who drafted the bill to enable the first planning commission in Ohio in 1915. Lawyer who represented the government interest in the case Euclid vs. Ambler in 1926.1st president of the American society of Planning officials (ASPO) in 1934.
Clarence Perry   defined the neighborhood unit (1 mile square with arterial roads on all sides and retail on all four corners. Houses and parks surrounded schools located in the center).
What is the definition of a Comprehensive Plan?   The offial statement of a legislative body that sets forth its major polcies concerning desirable future physical growth
What are the main elements of a Comprehensive plan?   Demographics, Land Use, Transportation, Community facility and infrastruction
What is the Mean, Median and Mode   Mean: average of a set of numbers (eg. 1+2+3=6/3 = 2) Median is the middle most number (eg, 1,2,3 =2)Mode is the most frequent number (eg. 1,2,3,3,3 = 3).
Who is Sal Alinsky?   Authored Rules for Radicals, known for his advocacy planning.
Who is Norm Krumholtz   Known for his advocacy planning in Ohio
What is Rational Planning   Utilizes scientific methods to determine all the alternatives for a given action. Assumes that one can determine all the alternatives and can choose the best one. There are no \$ constraints. Ignores all political influences.
What is Incremental Planning   Planning techique that makes minor changes over time. Makes light of the fact that money does run out and is not replenishable.
What is Transactive Planning   Planning Technique that relies on face to face contact and mutual learning. Planning tools are evaluated on the effect on the people and the capacity of growth through co-opertation
What is Advocacy Planning   Founded by Paul Davidoff. Used by both Norman Krumholz and Sal Alinsky. Planners role is to advocate for the uner represented groups in the planning process. Brought back room negotiations into the open.
What is Radical Planning   Takes power away fromthe people and gives planning back to the people. Allows neighbors to be responsible for planning in their own communities.
What is Communicative Planning   Focuses on identifying stakeholders and building a concensus on how to sole a problem. Concensus building is major focus.
What is Ladder of Participation   Ciizen participation is defined in terms of the amount of actual control citizens have over policy decisions.
What is the 1st Amendment   Deals with freedom of speach, freedom of assocation and freedom of religion.
What is the 5th Amendment   Deals with just compensations of property; emenient domain issues.
What is the 14th Amendment   Deals with Due process, substantive due process, procedural due process, and equal protection
What is the difference between a Dillion's Rule state and a Home Rule State   Dillion's rule state provides for local government to do only that which the state has set in policy. Home Rule states allow for local government to develope policy without state authority.
What is Range   Highest number (-) the smallest numbereg: 10-2 is 8
What is Nominal measurement of central tendency   This measurement of Central Tendency is classified into mutually exclusive groups that lack intrinsic order. Race, social security number, and sex are examples of this data tool.
What is ordinal measurement of central tendency   has values that are ordered so that inferences can be made regarding magnitude but which have no fixed interval between values. Educational attainment or a letter grade on a test would be examples. Other example: AICP exam
What is interval measeurement of central tendency.   is data that has an ordered relationship with a magnitude. Temperature is an example. 30 degrees is not twice as cold as 60 degrees.
What is ratio measurement of central tendancy   has an ordered relationship and equal intervals. Distance is an example, 3.2 miles is twice as long as 1.6 miles. Any form of central tendency can be used for this type of data.
Who is Walter Moody   published Wacker's Manual of the Plan of Chicago, adopted as an eighth-grade textbook by the Chicago Board of Education. This is the first known formal instruction in city planning below the college level.
Was the first state to pass enabling legislation   Wisconsin
Was the first city to use land use zoning to guide development.   Los Angeles
Who is Harland Bartholomew   Was hired by Newark, New Jersey in 1914 as the first planning commission. Went on to become one of the most famous planning consultants.
Who is Edward Bassett   Wrote the first comprehensive zoning code for the City of New York, adopted 1916.
What is the City of Cincinnati?   This city was the first major U.S. city to adopt a comprehensive plan in 1925, produced by Alfred Bettman and Ladislas Segoe.
What is the State of Hawaii?   This state was the first state to introduce statewide zoning in 1961.
Who is Jacob Riis?   Authored How the Other Half Lives. This book resulted in housing reform in New York City.
Who is Patrick Geddes?   Authored Cities in Evolution published in 1915. This book centers on regional planning
Who is Wiliam Whyte?   Authored The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces, published in 1980. This book promotes the use of environmental psychology and sociology in urban design.
Who is Daniel Burnham?   Was a leader the City Beautiful movement. Created the first model civic center, known as the White City, in Chicago for the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893.
Which President established the Resettlement Administration in 1935?   President Teddy Roosevelt.
What is the Land Ordinance of 1785?   This provided for the rectangular land survey of the Old Northwest
What is the Homestead Settlement act, of 1862?   This act provided 160 acres of land to settlers for a fee of \$18 and a guarantee of five years of residence. The result was the settlement of 270 million acres, or 10 percent of the land area of the United States.
The General Land Law Revision Act of 1891?   This Act provided the President of the United States with the power to create forest preserves by proclamation.
What is the Forest Management Act of 1897?   This act allowed the Secretary of the Interior to manage forest preserves.
What is the US Reclamation Act of 1902?   This act allowed the funds raised from the sale of public land in arid states to be used to construct water storage and irrigation systems.
What is the Federal Antiquities Act of 1906?   This act was the first to provide federal protection for archaeological sites. The Act allowed for the designation of National Monuments.
What is the Resettlement Administration of 1935?   This administration was formed to carry out experiments in population resettlement and land reform. The result was the development of Greenbelt towns.
What is the Serviceman's Readjustment Act of 1944?   commonly known as the GI Bill, guaranteed home loans to veterans. The result was the rapid development of suburbs.
What is the U.S. Housing Act of 1954? What problems did it create?   This Act required cities to develop comprehensive plans and provided funding for planning under Section 701. One of the problems with the 701 plan led to the creation of plans for the purpose of acquiring \$ rather than to encourage planning efforts.
What is Concentric Circle Planning Theory   This planning theory believes that cities grow in a series of outward rings. Land use is based on the distance from the downtown. There are five rings to his theory.
What is Sector Planning Theory?   this Planning theory argued that land uses vary based on transportation routes. The city, as a result, was a series of sectors radiating out from the center of the city.
What is Multi-Nuceli Planning Theory?   This planning theory argued that cities develop a series of specific land use nuclei. A land use nucleus is formed because of accessibility to natural resources, clustering of similar uses, land prices, and the repelling power of land uses.
What is Central Place Theory?   This theory explains the size and spacing of cities. The theory states that there is a minimum market threshold to bring a firm to a city and there is a maximum range people are willing to travel to receive goods and services.
What is Riverside, Illinois   1st American Suburb, connected by Railroad cars, contained the first curviliner streets; designed by Fredrick Law Olmstead and Calvert Vaux
Name the three Garden Cities designed and built under Roosevelt's new deal?   Greenhill, OhioGreendale, WisconsinGreenbelt, Maryland
What are the 4 key elements of New Urbanism?   Walkability, mix use, transportation and uran design.
Name 4 cities that embody the new urbanism elements   1. Seaside, FL2. Kentlands, MD3. Celebration, FL4. Marimont, Ohio
Jacob Riis is the author of which of the books?   How the Other Half Lives and The Children of the Poor. Riis wrote at the turn of the 20th century about the lives of the poor in blighted urban areas.
What year was Burnham’s Plan for Chicago presented?   1909
Which theory posits that land values are highest along major roadways?   Sector theory was developed by Homer Hoyt in 1939 based on his observation of high-end residential development in Chicago.
What did the USSC decide in Gettysburg Elec. Railway vs. the US?   First time historical preservation is used in the US. The USSC found that aquisition of the Gettysburg battlefields was a valid public purpose- use of eminent domain.
New Oreleans, 1921 this occurred   Designation of the first every historic preservation commission in the U.S. The Vieux Carre Commission.
This Act was passed in 1935 by US Congress?   The Historic Sites, Buildings and Antiquities Act. Provided for the Secretary of the Interior to identify and restore qualified historic sites and properties.
This Act, relating to Historic Preservation is passed by Congress in 1966.   National Historic Preservation Act- est. national register of historic places and provides for protection of preservation worthy sites. Directs each state to appoint a historical preservation officer (SHPO)
What theory did Harris and Ullman posit?   Multi Nuceli Planning Theory- Cities growth depended on land use nucleus formed around industry and similar uses; ie Natural resources; land prices etc.
What theory did Hoyt posit?   Sector Theory: Transportation routes resulted in cities growth radiating from those areas.
What theory did Burgess posit?   Concentric Circle- After studying the growth of Chicago, he believed that cities grew in outward rings around the cities core industries.
What theory did Christiller posit   Central Place Theory- While there is a minimum market threshold to bring a firm to a city and there is a maximum range people are willing to travel to receive goods and services.

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Created by: lailport on 2010-02-11