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600 BCE to 600 CE

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What is polytheism?   The belief in many gods. Most early civilizations were polytheistic.  
What is animism?   Objects that can have spirits. Animism was mostly present in the Americas and Africa.  
What is shamanism?   Shamen that go between the real and spirit world. Most present in the Americas and Central Asia.  
How and where did Hinduism begin?   It began in India because of Aryan invaders. It is the oldest of the major religions.  
What is dharma?   Rules of your caste.  
What is karma?   What you do in this life will determine your caste in the next life.  
What is reincarnation?   The cycle of life and death.  
What is moksha?   The release from the cycle of life and death.  
What keeps India together throughout the different empires?   Hinduism.  
What are some examples of Hindu texts?   Rig Veda and Baghavad Gita.  
What are some examples that showed India was a patriarchal society?   Sati (throwing oneself onto the burning corpse of her husband) and women could not achieve moksha.  
Where and who founded Buddhism?   Buddhism is from India, founded by the Buddha, or Siddhartha Gautama.  
Buddhism spawned from what religion?   Hinduism.  
What are the Four Noble Truths?   Life is suffering; suffering is caused by attachment to material things and people; there is a way to end suffering; the way to end suffering is the Eightfold Path.  
What do you have to do to follow the Eightfold Path?   Follow the right conduction and meditate.  
What is Nirvana?   Peace/bliss.  
Nirvana in Buddhism is comparable to what in Hinduism?   Moksha.  
Why did Buddhism appeal to the poor?   Nirvana could be achieved in one lifetime, unlike Moksha.  
Like Christianity, Buddhism offered what to both men and women?   A monastic life.  
What are the three universal religions?   Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam.  
What does it mean to be a universalizing religion?   They are easily adapted to other cultures.  
What are the two types of Buddhism?   Theravada and Mahayana.  
What is Theravada Buddhism?   The older version of Buddhism complete with monks and the lesser vehicle.  
What is Mahayana Buddhism?   The newer version of Buddhism that included all people, called the greater vehicle.  
Ashoka, emperor of India, spread what religion and kept it from dying out?   Buddhism.  
What facilitated the spread of Buddhism to China, Korea, and Japan?   The Silk Roads.  
Angkor Wat was influenced by what two religions?   Buddhism and Hinduism.  
Where and when did Confucianism began?   Confucianism developed in China during the Warring State period.  
What did Confucianism emphasize?   Education, respect, reciprocity, virtue, and order.  
What does Filial piety mean?   Family respect.  
What are the Five Relationships in Confucianism?   Ruler to ruled; father to son; husband to wide; older brother to younger brother; and older friend to younger friend.  
The Civil Service Exam was based on what?   The Confucian Analects. (Book of dumb Confucian sayings)  
What was the Civil Service Exam?   Government bureaucracy based on merit.  
The Civil Service Exam allowed the possibility for what?   Social mobility.  
During the Tang dynasty, what two religions combined to create Neo-Confucianism?   Confucianism and Buddhism.  
In China, who founded Daoism?   Laozi  
What did Daoism emphasize?   Harmony with nature.  
In the Qin Dynasty, Shi Huangdi created what philosophy?   Legalism.  
What was the first great monotheistic faith founded by Abraham in the Middle East?   Judaism.  
What two religions were influenced by Judaism?   Christianity and Islam.  
Why is Judaism not a universal religion?   It stays in one place.  
What spread Christianity?   Jesus's disciple Paul, the Roman Roads, Roman dominance, trade, war, and migration.  
What empire embraced Christianity?   The Roman Empire.  
In 380 CE, who made Christianity the official religion of Rome?   Theodosius.  
What are the three trade interactions of the Classical period?   The Silks Roads, Sea Roads, and the Sand Roads.  
The Silk Roads facilitated the diffusion of what?   Disease, technology, beliefs, and ideas.  
The Sea Roads linked what countries?   India, East Africa, Middle East, Southeast Asia, and China.  
The Sand Roads connected Sub-Saharan Africa with?   North Africa and the Mediterranean.  
Why was trade in the Americas limited and regional?   Different crops, different geography, and the only beast of burden they had was the llama.  
Classical empires of China?   Qin/Han  
Classical empires of India?   Mauryan/Gupta  
Classical empires of Mediterranean?   Persia/Greece/Rome  
Classical empire of the Americas?   Maya.  
Why does this unit start at 600 BCE?   The rise of classical civilizations such as Rome, Han, and Gupta.  
Why does this unit end at 600 CE?   The emergence of Islam.  
What do we need to know about the first Chinese dynasty, the Zhou?   It was the longest lasting dynasty and they developed the mandate of Heaven.  
What came after the Zhou dynasty?   The Warring States Period.  
What came after the Warring States Period?   The Qin dynasty.  
Who was known as the first emperor of China?   Shi Huangdi.  
What did the Qin dynasty accomplish?   Legalism, standardized weights, measurements, currencies, laws, a written language, builds tomb guarded by the Terra Cotta warriors, and they started the Great Wall.  
What dynasty was considered the Golden Age of China?   The Han.  
What defines a Golden Age?   Peace, culture, art.  
What dynasty established the Silk Road?   Han.  
The Civil Service Exam began with what dynasty?   The Han.  
What did the Han Dynasty accomplish?   Paper manufacture, sun dial, calendar, compass, rudder, seismograph, and water powered mills.  
What was the first empire to unify the Indian subcontinent?   The Mauryan Empire.  
The emperor of the Mauryan dynasty was?   Ashoka.  
What made the Gupta Empire the Golden Age of India?   Number system, concept of zero, concept of pi, Sanskrit flourishes, predicted eclipses, inoculation, surgeries and bone setting.  
Who started the Persian Empire?   Cyrus the Great.  
What religion was practiced in Persia?   Zoroastrianism.  
The leader of the Persian empire was known as the "____ __ _____".   King of Kings.  
What was the Royal Road?   1600 miles of roads in Persia.  
What was the capital of Persia?   Persepolis.  
Who fought in the Persian War besides the Persians?   The Greeks. (Athens/Sparta)  
The Persian Empire eventually fell to whom?   Alexander the Great of Macedonia.  
What made Greece unique?   Their geography. Their islands and mountains made them isolated.  
Accomplishments of Athens?   Democracy, science, arts, philosophy, and architecture.  
Accomplishments of Sparta?   Military.  
Greek culture?   Olympics, mythology, epic poems of the Odyssey and the Iliad, drama and comedies, and philosophy.  
List some Greek philosophers who taught each other (in order).   Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Alexander the Great.  
What was the Peloponnesian War?   Athens vs. Greece. Sparta won. This weakened Greece and it was taken over by Alexander the Great.  
What is Hellenism?   The spread of Greek culture.  
Alexander the Great's empire facilitated the spread of culture to where?   Greece, India, Persia, and Egypt.  
What are Rome's greatest achievements?   Law and engineering.  
The Roman Republic was made up of the Senate and had the ______ _____.   Twelve Tables.  
The Patricians were the ____.   rich  
The Plebeians were the _____.   poor  
Who was the first emperor of the Roman Empire?   Julius Caesar.  
Who was the second emperor of the Roman Empire?   Octavian Augustus  
What is the Pax Romana?   Roman peace, Rome's golden age.  
Examples of Roman technology?   The Coliseum, aqueducts, and the Roman Roads.  
Which two societies heavily depended on slavery?   Greece and Rome.  
Achievements of the Mayan Empire?   Writing system-glyphs, calendar, the concept of zero, astronomical observations, and the steppe pyramids of Tikal and Chichen Itza.  
Where was Teotihuacan?   Mexico.  
Why did Han China fall?   Land problems, corruption, Yellow Turban rebellion, disease, and conflict with the nomadic Xiongnu.  
Why did Western Rome fall? (East survived as the Byzantine Empire)   Tax revolts, bad leaders, division of the empire, over expansion, decrease in trade, disease, and invasions from the Huns and Goths.  
Why did the Gupta empire fall?   Invasion by the White Huns.  


   





 
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