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Fund of body chap16

The Gastrointestinal System Chapter 16

The gastrointestinal system(GI) is AKA the digestive system
The GastroIntestinal(GI) system prepares food for use by cells through five basic activities 1)Ingestion/eating 2)Peristalsis 3)Digestion 4)Absorption 5)Defecation
Ingestion involves taking food into the oral cavity(mouth)
Peristalsis is the wave like action of the GastroIntestinal(GI) system that pushes the food along the digestive tract
Borborygmos is the gurgling sound made by the peristalic movement AKA Bowel Sounds(BS)
Digestion is the breakdown of food by both chemical and mechanical processes
Absorption is the movement of digested food into the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems for distribution to the body's cells
Defecation is the elimination from the body those substances that are indigestible and can not be absorbed
the journey of food through the GastroIntestinal(GI) system takes an average of 12 hours
The GastroIntestinal(GI)tract is AKA alimentary canal
The GastroIntestinal(GI) tract is a long continuous tube that runs from the oral cavity to the anus
The length of the GastroIntestinal(GI) tract is approximately 30 feet
Digestion begins in the oral cavity(mouth)
Mechanical digestion involves mastication(chewing)
The tongue, labiae(lips) and buccae(cheeks) keep the food between the superior and inferior dentes(teeth)
Between ages 6 months to 2 years there are 20 temporary or deciduous teeth
By age 13 there are 32 permanent teeth
The 8 anterior(front)teeth(4 on top/4 on bottom) are called incisors/they cut food
The next 4 teeth(2 on top-superior/2 on bottom-inferior) are called canine or cuspids
Canine(cuspids) are used to tear food
the next 8 teeth(4-top/4-bottom) are called premolars(bicuspids)
the next 12 teeth are called molars(tricuspids)
The bicuspids and tricuspids are used to grind food
Each tooth is divided into 3 parts called 1) the crown 2) the cervix(neck) 3) the root
The crown is the portion above the gingivae(plural--(gums)
The crown is covered by the hardest substance in the body called enamel
The cervix(neck) of the tooth is the connection between the crown & root
The root is embedded into the sockets located in the maxilla(superior jaw) and mandible(inferior jaw)
Chemical digestion occurs in the oral cavity because of the presence of saliva
Saliva contains an antibacterial enzyme called lysozyme
Saliva is primarily produced in 3 glands called the 1) Parotid glands 2) Submandibular glands 3) Sublingual glands(under tongue)
The hard palate forms the anterior(front) part of the roof of the oral cavity(mouth)
The soft palate forms the posterior portion of the roof of the oral cavity(mouth)
Hanging from the posterior border of the soft palate is a cone shaped muscular structure called the uvula
The uvula prevents food from entering the nasal cavity
The tongue is a muscular structure and is covered on the superior surface with projections called papillae(plural-little bumps on your tongue)
The tongue is connected to the floor of the oral cavity by the lingual(tongue) frenulum(connection)
The anterior(front) two thirds of the tongue is covered with taste buds
The four(4) tastes are sweet, sour, salty & bitter
The pharynx is the throat
The pharynx begins the process of swallowing(deglutition)
The esophagus is the 10 inch tube between the laryngopharynx(voice box & throat) and the stomach
The proximal(beginning) esophagus passes through the mediastinum
The mediastinum is the space between the lungs
The distal(end) esophagus pierces the diaphragm through the esophageal hiatus(hiatal hernia happens here)
The sphincter that connects the esophagus to the stomach is called the cardiac sphincter(ring of muscles/opens & closes) lower esophageal sphincter
The stomach is located in the Left Upper Quadrant(LUQ) of the abdomen
The stomach is a bag of muscles designed to churn, squash, and squeeze food into a liquid
The liquid food is called chyme (pronounced kime)
Chemical digestion occurs in the stomach due to 1)HCl (HydroChLoric acid) 2)Pepsin
Pepsin begins the digestion of protein
The stomach is protected from being dissolved by these enzymes due to a mucus layer
In 2 to 6 hours the stomach empties all its contents into the duodenum through the pyloric sphincter(ring of muscles)
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine(bowel)
The second section of the small intestine(bowel) is the jejunum
The third section of the small intestine(bowel) is the ileum
80% of the absorption of nutrients occurs in the small bowel(duodenum)
The nutrients absorbed in the small intestine(bowel) include 1)Simple sugars(glucose) 2)Amino acids(protein) 3)Fatty acids 4)Water 5)Vitamins 6)Minerals
The ileum empties into the large intestine(bowel,colon) is called the cecum
A finger-like projection off of the cecum is called the (vermiform) appendix
The appendix is located in the Right Lower Quadrant(RLQ) of the abdomen
More specifically the appendix is located in the right inquinal(iliac) region of the abdomen
The second section of the large intestine(bowel,colon) is called the ascending colon
The ascending colon turns left at the hepatic flexure
The third section of the large intestine(bowel,colon) is called the transverse colon
The transverse colon curves beneath the lower end of the spleen at the splenic flexure
The most important function of the large intestine(bowel,colon) is to absorb water
Stool(feces) should be a semisolid
Normal stool(feces) should be brown & formed
The fourth section of the large intestine(bowel,colon) is called the descending colon
The fifth section of the large intestine(bowel,colon) is called the sigmoid colon
The sixth section of the large intestine(bowel,colon) is called the rectum
The pancreas is located posterior(behind) to the stomach(retrogastric)
The pancreas secretes enzymes into the duodenum that will aid in chemical digestion and neutralize HydroChLoric acid(HCl)
Stool(feces) leaves the body through the anus
The act of emptying the rectum is called defecation(defecate) or Bowel Movement(BM)
Pancreatic enzymes include 1)Amylase 2)Trypsin 3)Chymotripsin
Pancreatic enzymes(Amylase,Trypsin,Chymotripsin) are carried from the pancrease to the duodenum through the pancreatic duct
The pancreas also secretes the hormones insulin & glucagon into the bloodstream
Insulin will allow glucose to enter the cells
Glucagon stimulates the liver to release stored sugar(glycogen) into glucose
Insulin & glucagon regulate and control Blood Sugar(BS) levels
Pancreatitis can be diagnosed by detecting high levels of serum amylase
The liver is located in the Right Upper Quadrant(RUQ) of the abdomen
The functions of the liver include *Production of heparin,prothrombin,&thrombin which are involved in the coagulation(clotting) mechanism *Production of Kupffer's cells which destroy old erythrocytes(bilirubin)&leukocytes(WBCs)*Detoxifies poisons(toxins)ammonia,alcohol(ETOH)& medications
The functions of the liver include continued *Stores excess glucose as glycogen *Stores copper(Cu), iron(Fe), and the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E & K *Produces bile
Bile is stored & concentrated in the gall bladder
The function of bile is to emulsify(break up) fats
The gall bladder is located just inferior to the liver
Bile is carrid from the gall bladder to the duodenum via the common bile duct
LFTs stands for Liver Function Tests
LFTs(Liver Function Tests) are used to detect hepatic(liver) diseases
LFTs(Liver Function Tests) include(1-12) *ALKaline PHOSphatase (ALP or Alk.Phos) *ALT aka SGPT *AST aka SGOT *LD aka LDH *Ammonia *ALBumin(Alb) *BILIrubin(bili)or neonatal bilirubin *Hepatitis A Virus(HAV) *Hepatitis B Surface AntiGen(HBsAg)/a test to detect the Hepatitis B Virus(HBV)
LFTs)Liver Function Tests) included (1-12) continued *Hepatitis B surface antibody (Anti-HBs) is a test to detect recovery or vaccination to the Hepatitis B virus *Hepatitis C Virus(HCV) *A hepatic function panel(profile)
A hepatic function panel(profile) consists of a]Albumin(Alb) b]Bilirubin(billi) c]Alkaline Phosphatase(ALP) d]AST(SGOT) e]ALT(SGPT)
Other tests of the GI(GastroIntestinal) system include *UGI Upper GastroIntestinal AKA barium swallow *Lower GastroIntestinal(GI) AKA Barium Enema(BaE,BE) *EGD EsophagoGastroDuodenoscopy *GB(gall bladder) series or GB ultrasound *Colonoscopy *Sigmoidoscopy
An UGI (Upper GastroIntestinal) and lower GI are referred to as a GI series
EGD stands for EsophagoGastroDuodenoscopy
Colonoscopy refers to the process of viewing the colon(large intestine, bowel)
Sigmoidoscopy refers to the process of viewing the sigmoid colon
Created by: Patti Belfi Reed Patti Belfi Reed