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A&P 1

Taken from first powerpoint, for quiz 1

Anatomy - the structure and shape of the body - derived from the Greek words meaning to cut (tomy) apart (ana)
Gross anatomy Large, easy to see
Microscopic anatomy only seen through microscope
Physiology - is the study of how the body and its parts function - the study of (logy) nature (physio)
Atoms (levels of struct. org.) - chemical level - tiny building blocks of matter that form molecules (water, sugar, proteins)
Cells (levels of struct. org.) molecules associate in specific ways to form microscopic cells "The smallest unit of ALL living things"
Tissues (levels of struct. org.) in complex organisms, groups of similar cells that have a common function form tissues (4 types: epithelial, connective, muscular, neural)
Organ (levels of struct. org.) a structure composed of two or more tissue types that perform a specific function (complex functions become possible)
Organ system (levels of struct. org.) group of organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose (11 systems)
Organism/Organismal lever (levels of struct. org.) highest level of structural organization
Integumentary system -skin, hair, nails (waterproofs, cushions, protects) -excretes waste, regulates temperature, provides pain receptors
Skeletal system - bones, cartilage, ligaments, joints - supports the body - provides framework for skeletal muscles -protects internal organs -stores minerals
Muscular system - muscles allow for movement - mobility of the body - skeletal muscles are attached to bone (different from heart and other hollow organs)
Nervous system - brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors - responds to simuli from internal/external environment
Central nervous system (nervous system) - brain, spinal cord - receives/sends messages from/to the peripheral nervous system
Peripheral nervous system (nervous system) - sensory and effector nerves - sends and receives messages to/from the CNS
Endocrine system - produces and secretes hormones - Endocrine glands include: pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, thymus, pancreas, pineal, ovaries, testes
Cardiovascular system - heart and blood vessels - blood is transport fluid for oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and other substances to tissues for exchange - heart is pump that propels blood out and into blood vessels for transport
Lymphatic system - cleanses the blood and houses cells involved in immunity - includes: lymphatic vessels, thoracic duct, lymph nodes, lymphoid organs
Respiratory system - supplies the body with oxygen - structures include: nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
Digestive system - breaks down food for absorption and distribution - structures include: oral cavity, esophagus, intestines, rectum, anus
Urinary/Excratory system - removes waste and balances electrolytes - structures: kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra
reproductive system - functions to produce offspring - Males: carries sperm to outside of body (testes, scrotum, penis, accessory glands, duct system) - females: uterus provides site for fetus development (ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina)
Homeostasis - homeo=the same, stasis=standing still - the body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment even though the external conditions change
Three components of homeostatic control systems Receptor, control center, effector
Two types of control mechanisms (homestasis) - Positive: original stimulus increases - Negative: original stimulus decreases
Dorsal cavity - Back side of the body - Cranial cavity (brain), spinal cavity (spinal cord, vertebral column)
Ventral Cavity - front of the body - thoracic cavity, abdominopelvic cavity (which contains abdominal and pelvic cavities) - these two are separated by diaphragm, which facilitates breathing
Created by: 517513566