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Urinalysis Final

What are the major components of urine? 95% water, Organic means from body,Urea and inorganic- sodium chloride
How long can freshly voided urine sit out until it should be refrigerated or preserved? processed within 1 to 2 hours
What is a random urine? Collected anytime, must be in a clean dry container. Used for complete UA
What is a first morning urine? 1st sample of the morning, most concentrated, Used to check for protein, nitrite, pregnancy and culture
What is a clean catch? Sterile container, used for culture
What is a 24 hr specimen? Discard the first, then collect rest for 24 hrs and first of next morning. Used for creatinine clearance test, hormone levels, total protein
What color is urochrome? normal straw color
What color is concentrated? dark straw
What color is dilute? light straw
What color is RBC's red or red/brown and cloudy
What is the urine turbidity of urates? white or pink precipitate in acid urine
What is the urine turbidity of phosphates? white precipitate in alkaline urine
What is the urine turbidity of leukocytes? milky urine- infection
What is the urine turbidity of erythrocytes? smokey urine
What is the urine turbidity of mucus? fluffy or bulky
What odors would you expect from normal urine? aromatic
What odors would you expect from bacterial infection? putrid- only significant if urine is fresh
What happens to the pH of urine when bacteria convert urea to ammonia? Becomes alkaline- if pH is greater than 8 and urine is fresh= UTI
How does knowing the pH help with the microscopic exam? Helps to Identify crystals
How does specific gravity relate to urine color and volume? large volume= light color= low sp. gr small volume= dark color= high sp gr
What could cause a pale urine to have a specific gravity greater than 1.040 Glucose
What is isosthenuria? fixed at 1.010
What is hyposthenuria? low sp gr
what is hypersthenuria? high sp gr
Define diuresis? increased urine volume often temporary
Define polyuria Large increase in urine volume consistently
Define oliguria decrease in urine volume
Define anuria no urine output
Define nocturia Urine excretion at night more than 5mL at night
What amount of protein is normally found in the urine? None
What does persistent proteinuria indicate? Renal/Kidney disease
What urine sample should be tested for protein? First morning
What are the causes of transient protein? Strenuous exercise, orthostatic, dehydration, UTI and acute illness with fever
What is orthostatic proteinuria? proetin in the urine when upright and not when lying down
In nephritic syndrome when the glomerulus is inflamed, which protein is found in the urine? Albumin
What is the colorimetric protein test? Dipstick
What is the principle behind the colorimetric test? Protein error of indicatprs
What protein is detected by the colorimetric test? Albumin
whatis CLIA'88? Clinical laboratory improvement amendments. Applies to all labs
How long must quality control records and patient values be kept? 2 years
How often should urinalysis controls be checked and recorded? According to manufacturers, new lot, new bottle is opened
Example of a waved test? dipstick, pregnancy test
Example of moderate test? hematology, chemistry, gram stain
Example of high complexity test? pap smear
What is normally found in the microscopic exam? few hyaline casts
What does a squamous epithelial cell look like? large flat cell from the urethra and vagina.
What does an RBC look like? Green yellow biconcave disc
What does a WBC look like? 1 1/2 larger than RBC. granular
What does yeast look like? Oval rather than round, spherical, looks like an egg, double walled, short chains, buds, easily confused with RBC
What does a fiber look like? Artifact
What does a hyaline cast look like? Colorless and transparent- cylinder shaped
What does a coarse granular cast look like? Cellular casts have degenerated into coarse granular material
What do RBC in the urine indicate? associated with almost any disease.
What does WBC in the urine indicate? infection
Amorphus urates yellow red salts in non-crystal form, looks like debry. In acid urine. Normal
Uric acid yellow red brown. polymorphus,diamond, rhombus, lemon or barrel shaped. Acid urine, Normal
Calcium oxalate Small colorless envelope, acid urine, normal
Triple phosphates colorless coffin lid, featherly or leaf. Alkaline, Normal
amorphous phosphates colorless to white. non crystal, looks like debry. Alkaline urine, Normal
calcium carbonate small dumbells, alkaline, normal
cystine colorless flat hexagonal plate, acid, Abnormal
What are some abnormal crystals? Tyrosine, cholesterol and bilirubin
What is glucosuria/glycosuria? glucose in the urine
What is polyuria? increased urine volume
What is polydipsia? increased thirst due to fluid loss
What is polyphagia? increased hunger due to loss of glucose
What substances cause a false positive for glucose on the dipstick? none
Define ketone bodies waste products of fat metabolism
When carbohydrate metabolism is altered, what does the body use for energy? fatty acid or fats
What are the three ketone bodies? acetobe, acetonacetic acid, betahydroxybutyric acid
Which ketone body do you smell on the patients breath? diabetes mellitus, low carb diet, fasting, starvation
Define hematuria intact RBCs in urine
Define hemoglobin protein contaminated in RBC and carries oxygen
What does hematuria with casts indicate? Renal disease
What causes a positive reaction for blood on the dipstick? intact RBC's, hemoglobin, myoglobin
On the dipstick how does the reagent pad look when positive with intact red blood cells? Spotted
What are two breakdown products of bilirubin and urobilinogen? hemoglobin breaks down into bilirubin and urobilinogion
Where is urobilinogen made and from what? Made in the intestine from direct or conjugated bilirubin by bacteria
WHat does PKU stand for? phenylketonuria
What causes PKU? hereditary, absence of an enzyme
What substance found in the urine indicates bacteriuria? nitrate mixes with bacteria changing it to nitrite. Nitrite turns pink
What does any shade of pink on the dipstick square for bacteriuria? greater than 20 bacteria per hpf may indicate UTI
What causes false negative results on the dipstick for bacteria? urine very dilute
What is the most common cause of false negative reaction on the dipstick for leukocytes? reading to early, must read at 2 minutes
What is HCG? Human chorionic gonadotropin
Created by: lecopple1