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Fund of Disease ch4

Cancer Chapter 4

The terms neoplasm, neoplasia and tumor are used to describe Ca(cancer)
A change in the biochemistry of a gene, resulting in the production of abnormal cells is called a mutation
A neoplasm(tumor) the invades other tissues is called malignant
The terms carcinoma and sarcoma refer to malignancies(Bad Cancer)
The ability to generate tumors at distant sites is called metastasis (metastatic) ("mets")
A tumor that does not invade or metastasize is called benign (good)
Benign tumors include 1.Lipoma AKA a fatty tumor 2.Myoma AKA a muscle tumor(usually refer to a fibroid tumor(s) of the uterus AKA leiomyoma(s) 3.Angioma AKA birthmark 4.Nevus AKA a mole 5.Papilloma AKA polyp or wart(varruca) 6.Adenoma AKA glandular tumor
Carcinogenic agents include 1.UVA(ultra violet radiation)&UVB(ultra violet) 2.Tobacco 3.Poor Diet/obesity 4.STIs(STD's) 5.Estrogen therapy such as BCP(birth control pills)or HRT(hormone replacement therapy 6.Chemicals asbestos(mnesothelioma), radon (lung),& benzene(leukemia)
Carcinogenic agents continued 7.Environment agents(air & water pollution) 8.Genetic predisposition (breast, ovarian & bladder malignancies) 9.Alcohol 10.A sedentary lifesytle
UVA & UVB from sunlight & tanning beds increase the risk of skin malignancies
UV(ultra violet) light also destroys collagen causing wrinkles & accelerates the aging process
Tobacco use increases the risk of oral, pulmonary, laryngeal, pharyngeal, esophageal, colorectal,pancreatic, hepatic, renal, gastric, uterine, & bladder malignancies
Poor diet (insufficient fruits & vegetables) and obesity increases the risk of esophageal, gastric, breast, & colorectal malignancies
STI's(Sexually transmitted infections/disease) especially the HPV(Human Papilloma Virus), early sexual activity and multiple sexual partners increase the risk of cervical malignancies
Estrogen therapy such as BCPs(birth control pills) or HRT(Hormone Replacement Therapy) can cause an increase of breast malignancies
Alcohol (1 drink/day) increases the risk of breast, liver, rectum, mouth, throat, and esophageal malignancies
A sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of breast, lung, ovarian, endometrial, colon, and prostate malignancies
Cancer prophylaxis(protection) recommendations include 30 minutes a exercise(walking) 5 days a week
Signs & Symptoms of Ca(Cancer) include Change in bowel or bladder habits A sore that does not heal Unusual bleeding or discharge Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere Indigestion(dyspepsia)or Dysphagia(difficulty swalling) Obvious change in a verucca(wart)or nevus(mole) Nagging cough
Pain is usually NOT AN EARLY symptom of Cancer
Dx(diagnosis) of cancer usually confirmed with a Bx(Biopsy)
Types of Bx(biopsies include 1.frozen sections 2.needle Bx 3.Exfoliative cytology refers to: a)Scrapings b)Washings c)Secretions
Ca(cancer) staging(0,1,2,3,4) refers to the size & spread
Ca(cancer) grading(0,1,2,3,4) refers to the aggressiveness
Tx(treatment) for Ca(cancer) includes 1)Antineoplastic medications AKA "chemotherapy" 2)Radiation Therapy 3)Hormonal Therapy 4)Surgery
Created by: Patti Belfi Reed Patti Belfi Reed