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Fund of Disease ch 2

Immunity & the Lymphatic System, Chapter 2

Immunity is the ability of the body to defend itself against infectious agents, foreign cells, and cancer cells
Antigen is any foreign protein (bacteria, virus, fungi, toxins, allergens, etc) that trigger an immune response
Inflammation occurs whenever there is trauma
Trauma is any wound or injury
Examples of Trauma include: 1.Abrasion(superficial mechanical damage to the skin AKA scrape) 2.Excoriation(superficial chemical damage to the skin) 3.Contusion(bleeding under the skin, bruise) 4.Laceration(tissue that is cut, ripped or torn) 5.FX(fracture) 6.Infection
Examples of Trauma con't. 7.Avulsion(tearing any part of the body away from the whole) 8.Allergic reaction
Damage caused by trauma stimulates the release of a chemical that initiates the inflammatory response called histamine
Signs & symptoms of an inflammatory response include: 1.Erythema(redness 2.Inflammatory exudate(swelling AKA edema) 3.Pain 4.Warmth 5.Pruritus(itching)
Why does the body respond to trauma in this fastion The more fluid that is brought to the traumatized area(hyperemia) the faster the healing will occur
Suppurative, pyogenic, purulent, and abcess all refer to Pus
Pus is primarily made up of necrosed(dead) leukocytes(white blood cells)
Leukocytes (WBCs) include: Monocytes(phagocytic) Neutrophils(phagocytic) Eosinophils(allergies) Lymphocytes(produce antibodies) Basophis(release histamine)
An allergy is a normal response to an antigen
An unusal or exaggerated allergic response to an antigen is called Anaphylaxis(Anaphylactic shock)
An autoimmune disease occurs when the immune system attacks the body's healthy tissues
Autoimmune diseases are more common in women (90%)
Lupus Erythematosus is a non-contagious incurable inflammatory autoimmune disease
Types of Lupus include: 1.Discoid (DLE) 2.Systemic (SLE)
DLE (Discoid Lupus Erythematosus) is characterized by a rash on the face, neck, and scalp
SLE (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus) is characterized by: 1.Fatigue 2.Cephalalgia(head pain), anxiety & MDD(Major Depression Disorder) 3.Rash with photosensitivity(light sensitivity)4.Arthralgia(joint pain), myalgia(muscle pain), alopecia(hair loss)5.Pleurisy(inflammation of a pleura-lining around the lung)
SLE characterization Cont. 6.Lymphadenopathy(swollen lymph nodes) & Splenomegaly(enlarged spleen) 7. Pericarditis (inflam of the pericardium),endocarditis(inflam of the endocardium) & CHF(congestive Heart failure)8.Atherosclerosis(hard artery 9.Lupus nephritis (inflam. of a kidney)
Dx(diagnosis) of Lupus is confirmed with an ANA (AntiNuclear Antibody) blood test
Tx(treatment) of Lupus included: 1.NSAIDs(non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory) and SAIDs(sterioidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs) 2. Analgesics (Pain medication) 3.Benlysta (1hr OP IV Tx q month) (1 hour Out Patient treatment every month)
Lupus can cause premature death due to renal or cardiac failure
Other Autoimmune Diseases include: 1.MS(multiple sclerosis)2.GD(Graves' Disease-hyperthroyidism)3.DM(Diabetes Mellitus/child diabetes)4.UC(Ulcerative Colitis)5.CD(Crohn's Disease-intestin)6.Vitiligo(local loss of skin pigment)7.RA(Rheumatoid Arthritis) 8.Scleroderma(hardening of the skin)
Immunity caused by the body creating antibodies is called active immunity
Active immunity can be achieved by immunization AKA inoculation or vaccination (vaccine)
A vaccine (immunization, inoculation) is an attenuated (crippled) or inactivated (dead) antigen
An attenuated(crippled) or inactivated(dead) does not cause disease but will trigger the B lymphocytes(B cells) to produce antibodies
Antibodies are microscopic immune proteins that bind to antigens(foreign proteins) and tag the antigens(foreign proteins) for destruction by the immune system
Antibodies are specialized
Specialized means that only a specific antigen (virus, bacteria, fungus, etc) will be tagged
Antibody production is the only mechanism that can defeat a pathogenic(disease creating virus) virus
The body can initially produce 3000-4000 antibodies per second for 3-4 days
Multiple exposures to an attenuated(crippled) or inactivated(dead) antigen can cause a better and longer lasting immunity which is the reason for booster immunizations
Immunity caused by receiving antibodies from another is called passive immunity
An example of passive immunity is colostrum(breastfeeding for the first 2-3 days)
Breastfeeding has been shown to reduce the incidence of DM(Diabetes Mellitus) heart disease, obesity, eczema, lymphomas, and SIDS(Sudden Infant Death Syndrome)
A natural immunity inherited genetically from your ancestors is called an innate immunity
Created by: Patti Belfi Reed Patti Belfi Reed