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COP2220 Ch2

Computer Science I Chapter 2 Terms

address list in C: function parameter list that consists of variable address
address operator in C: the ampersand(&)
ASCII the American Standard Code for Information Interchance. An encoding scheme that defines control characters and graphic characters for the first 128 values in a byte. The first 128 characters in Unicode
binary stream a stream in which data is represented as it is stored in the memory of a computer
block comment a comment that can span one or more lines, contrast with line comment
Boolean a variable or expression that can assume only the values true or false
character constant a constant that defines one character enclosed in two single quotes
character set the set of values in a computer's alphabet
comment in a C program, a note to the program reader that is ignored by the compiler
complex type a data type consisting of a real and an imaginary type and representing a complex number in mathematics
constant a data value that cannot change during the execution of the program, contrast with variable
conversion code is formatted input and output, the code in the format specification that identifies the data type
conversion specification the specification that defines how data are to be represented in an input or output operation
data encapsulation the software engineering concept in which data are hidden from an application program's access
data hiding the principle of structured programming in which data are available to a function only if it needs them to complete its processing; data not needed are "hidden" from view
declaration in C, the association of a name with an object, such as a type, variable, structure or function
definition in C, the process that reserves memory for a named object, such as a variable or constant
derived type a composite data type constructed from other types (array, structure, union, pointer and enumerated type)
end of file (EOF) the condition that occurs when a read operation attempts to read after it has processed the last piece of data
escape character in C, the backslash (\) character used to identify a special interpretation for the character that follows it
flag modifier the input/output format specification that supresses input or modifies output formatting
floating-point number a number that contains both an integral and a fraction
format control string in a formatted input/output function, the string that is used for formatting data
function a named block of code that performs a process within a program; an executable unit of code, consisting of a header, function name, and a body that is designed to perform a task within the program
global declaration selection the declaration and/or definition of a variable or function outside the boundaries of any function - that is, before main or between function definitions, contrast with local declaration
header file in C, a file consisting of prototype statements and other declarations and placed in a library for shared use
identifier the name of an object. in C, identifiers can consist only of digits, letters and the underscore
imaginary type the data type in C that can represent an imaginary number in mathematics
include in C, a preprocessor command that specifies a library file to be inserted into the program
initializer in C, any value assigned to a constant or variable when it is defined
integral type a data type that can store only whole numbers
intellegent data name a software engineering principle that requires the identifier to convey the meaning or use of an object
justification an output formatting parameter that controls the placement of a value when it is shorter than the specified output width
Latin character set the extended ASCII character set in Unicode
line comment a comment that spans only to the end of the current line, contrast with block comment
literal an unnamed constant coded in an expression
logical data data whose values can be only true or false
memory constant a C type defined using the type qualifier const.
padding extra zeros or spaces added to the left or right of a data item
parameter a value passes to a function
parameter list a list of values passed to a function (the values may be data or addresses)
precisions modifier the print format string modifier that specifies the number of decimal places to be printed in a floating-point value
program documentation comments placed within a program to help the reader understand the purpose of the program or a portion of its implementation
real type a data type representing a number with a fraction
reserved word the set of words in C that have a predetermined interpretation and cannot be used in the definition of an object
sign flag the flag value (+) in the conversion code of a print format string that indicates that positive numbers must be printed with a plus sign
size modifier the data formatting token that modidies the conversion code
standard input stream the text file automatically opened by C for input to a program (stdin)
standard output stream the text file automatically opened by C for output from a program (stdout)
statement a syntactical construct in C that represents one operation in a function
standard type one of the intrinsic C types that are considered atomic; that is, that cannot be broken down (void, char, int, float)
statement section the section in a program where the executable statements are written
stream in C, the flow of data between a file and the program; a sequence of bytes in time
string in C, a variable-length sequence of characters delimited by a null character
string constant a constant comprised of a sequence characters enclosed in double quotes
syntax the "grammatical" rules of a language. In C, the set of keywords and formatting rules that must be followed when writing a program
token in C, a syntactical construct that represents an operation or a flag, such as the assignment token (=)
type a set of values and a set of operations that can be applied on these values
type qualifier a modifier used in the definition of an object
variable a memory storage object whose value can be changed during the execution of a program, contrast with constant
width modifier in a format string, a conversion code modifier that specifies the input maximum or output minimum size
Created by: Cmduncan88