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COP2220 Ch1

Computer Science I Chapter 1 Terms

application software computer software developed to support a specific user requirement, contrast with system software
application-specific software any application software that can be used for only one purpose, such as an accounting system
assembly language a programming language in which there is a one-for-one correspondence between the computer's machine language and the symbolic instruction set of the language
auxiliary (secondary) storage any storage device outside main memory; permanent data storage; external storage
blackbox testing testing based on the system requirements rather than a knowledge of the program, contrast with whitebox testing
central processing unit (CPU) the part of a computer that contains the control components - that is, the part that interprets instructions. in a per-unit and an arithmetic-logical unit
client in a client/server network, the computer that provides the basic application computing; the computer residing in the user's physical area
client/server a computer system design in which two seperate computers control the processing of the application, one providing the basic application computing (the client) and the other providing auxiliary services, such as database access (the server)
compilation the process used to convert a source program into machine language
compiler system software that converts a source program into executable object code; traditionally associated with high-level languages
computer language any of the syntactical languages used to write programs for computers, such as machine language, assembly language, C, COBOL and FORTRAN
computer system the set of computer hardware and software that make it possible to use a computer
distributed environment an environment that provides a seamless integration of computing functions between servers and clients
executable file a file that contains program code in its executable form; the result of linking the source code object module with any required library module
flowchart a program design tool in which standard graphical symbols are used to represent the logical flow of data through a function
general-purpose software software, such as a spreadsheet, that can be used in multiple applications
hard copy any computer output that is written to paper or other readable mediums such as microfiche, contrast with soft copy
hardware any of the physical components of a computer system, such as the keyboard or a printer
high-level language a portable programming language designed to allow the programmer to concentrate on the application rather than the structure of a particular computer or operating system
input device a device that provides data to be read by a program
linker the program creation process in which an object module is joined with precompiled functions to form an executable program
loader the operating system function that fetches an executable program into memory for running
machine language the instructions native to the central processor of a computer and that are executable without assembly or compilation
main memory consisting of random access memory (RAM) and read-only memory (ROM); used to store data and program instructions
object module the output of a compilation consisting of machine language instructions
operating system the software that controls the computing environment and provides an interface to the user
output device a device that can be written but not read
personal computer (PC) a computer designed for individual use
preprocessor the first phase of a C compilation in which the source statements are prepared for compilation and any necessary libraries are loaded
preprocessor directives commands to the C precompiler
primary storage the volatile (RAM) memory of a computer
program development a file that contains an executable program
psuedocode english-like statements that follow a function that provides the return type and formal parameter types
server in a client/server system, the centralized computer that provides auxiliary services
soft copy computer output written to a nonpermanent display such as a monitor, contrast with hard copy
software the application and system programs necessary for computer hardware to accomplish a task including their documentation and any required procedures
source file the file that contains program statements written by a programmer before they are converted into machine language; the input file to an assembler or compiler
structure chart a design and documentation tool that represents a program as a hierarchical flow of functions
symbolic language a computer language, one level removed from machine language, that has a mnemonic identifier for each machine instruction and has capability of symbolic data names
system development life cycle a model of the steps required to develop software that begins with the need for the software and concludes with its implementation
system development software any computer tool used to develop software, such as but not limited to compilers, debuggers and documentation tools
system software any software whose primary purpose is to support the operation of the computing environment, contrast with application software
system support software software used for non-application processing, such as system utilities
text editor software used to create and change text files, such as a word processor or a source program editor
time-sharing environment an operating system concept in which more than one user has access to a computer at the same time
translation unit in C, a temporary compilation file used to store modified source code
translator a generic term for any of the language conversion programs
waterfall model a system development life cycle in which each phase of development, such as requirement development and design, is completed before the next phase starts
whitebox testing program testing in which the internal design of the program is considered; clear box testing, contrast with blackbox testing
Created by: Cmduncan88