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Hematic Lymph System

Functions of blood: Provides transportation for all body tissues. Functions in protecting against infections. Maintains cells responsible for immunity
What are the 3 major blood cells: Erythrocytes(red blood cells) Leukocytes (white blood cells) & thrombocytes(platelets)
Composition: Solid=cellular, makes up 45% of blood. Liquid=Plasma, yellow coloured, makes up 55% of blood. & is 90% water. Remainder; Proteins,sugars,hormones,minerals
Erythrocytes: Most numerous of blood cells, specialized cell for transport of oxygen & carbon dioxide.
Hematocrit: The number of packed red blood cells.
Leukocytes: Protects the body from bacteria & foreign materials. Leave the blood to search&destroy bacteria in tissue&cells.
2 types of Leukocytes: Granulocytes & Agrandulocytes.
Granulocytes(leukocyte): Have granules in their cytoplasm. Formed in red bone marrow. Form myeloblasts then differentiate into Neurophils,Basophils & Eosinophils
Neutrophil: Most numerous leukocyte. highly phagocytic. Surrounds & destroys bacteria.1st cell to appear at a site of injury or infection
Basophil: Least numerous leukocyte. Increase in number with chronic inflammation or healing.Releases histamines & heparin
Basophil-Histamine: Initiates allergic reaction. increases blood flow for repair & healing.
Basophil-Heparin: Anticuagulant formed in the liver.
Eosinophil: 2nd most numerous leukocyte. Consumes toxic substances in tissues.Neutralizes toxins
Agranulocytes(leukocyte): 0 granules in cytoplasm. Have a single nucleus=mononuclear. there are 2types: Monocytes & lymphocytes.
Monocytes(Agranulocytes/leukocyte): Mature&leave blood stream & enter the lymphatic system, as phagocytes to clean up cells&forgein materials.
Lymphocytes(Agranulocytes/leukocyte): Protect against infection.types;Bcells & Tcells which use antigens to produce natural killers
Tcells (Lymphocytes/Agranulocytes/leukocyte): Mature in the thymus gland. Use cellular immunity to protect the body. Uses antigens to produce natural killers
Bcells (Lymphocytes/Agranulocytes/leukocyte): Mature in the bone marrow. Use humoral immunity to protect the body. Use antibodies to neutralize antigens
Thrombocytes(platelets): 2nd most numerous blood cell.Live 7-10days. Tiny fragments of cytoplasm that detach from the megakayocytes in bone marrow.Prevent blood loss.Form tiny plug in vessel walls&releases a chemical to promote clotting.
Blood systems&Groups: 2types; ABO system & Rh system. Depending on presence or absence of proteins&sugars(antigens on surface of body)& proteins called antibodies in the plasma of your blood.
O negative blood types are: Universal donors because patients of all blood types can receive O Rh negative.
Platelets: Smallest formed elements found in blood.Not true cells.Initiate blood clotting.
antibody: Protective protein produced by B lymphocytes in response to presence of a foreign substance called an antigen.
Antigen: Substance recognized as harmful to the host and stimulates formation of antibodies in an immunocompetent individual.
extracellular fluid: All body fluids found outside cells, including interstitial fluid,plasma,lymph and cerebrospinal fluid.
Natural Killer Cells: Specialized lymphocytes created by the T cell that kill abnormal cells by releasing chemicals that destroy the cell memebrane causing its intercellular fluids to leak out.
Anemia: Condition in which the O2 carrying capacity of blood is deficient.Not a disease rather a symptom of various diseases.Results from decrease in;RBCs circulating,amount of hemoglobin within them,in volume of packed erythrocytes.
AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Disease
Autoimmune Disease: Failure of the body to distinguish accurately between "self" & "nonself". The immune system attacks the antigens found on its own cells to such an extent that tissue injury results.
Myasthenia Gravis: Disorder that affects the neuromuscular junction.Muscles of the limbs,eyes and those affecting speech & swallowing are usually involved.
Edema: Abnormal accumulation of fluids in the intercellular spaces of the body.
Hemophilia: Hereditary disorder in which the blood-clotting mechanism is impaired.2types;Hemophilia A&B. Varies from mild to severe. Disease is found most commonly in men.
Infectious Mononucleosis: One of the acute infections caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. Usually in young adults.Called the 'kissing disease'.
Leukemia: Overgrowth of blood cells. Malignant cells help replace healthy bone marrow cells.
Hodgkins Disease: Malignant disease primarily of the lymph nodes. Begins with painless enlargement of lymph nodes.
Kaposi Sacroma: Malignancy of connective tissue, including bone, fat, muscle & fibrous tissue. Closely associated with AIDS
Ag Agglutination
AHF Antihemophiliac Factor VIII
Eosinophil is: A cell that releases toxins
Reticulocyte is: An immature red blood cell
Erythrocyte is: A mature red blood cell
Megakaryocyte is: A very large gigantic cell
Myelocyte is: An immature white blood cell
Monocyte is: A cell that digests
Basophil is: A cell that releases histamine
Hemocytoblast is: A stem cell
Lymphocyte is: A cell that produces antibodies
Leukocyte is: A mature white blood cell
Neutrophil is: A cell that has 3-4 lobes
Thrombocyte is: A cell that aids in clotting
What near mature RBC is usually found in both the bone marrow & the blood: Reticulocyte
What do lymph nodes do: Filter and collect bacteria.
What does the spleen do: Filters blood and stores platelets
Which cell contains Hb: Erythrocytes
Some of these cells are phagocytic: Leukocytes
These cells function in the prevention of disease: Leukocytes
These cells primary function is homeostasis: Thrombocytes
Erythema: Redness of the skin
Plasma: Liquid portio of blood with coagulation proteins
Hematocrit: The volume of packed red blood cells
Hypotension: Low blood pressure
Capillaries: Gas exchange through walls
Phagocytosis: Condition of ingesting cells
Autoimmune disease: Failure of the body to accurately distinguish self and non-self
Antibody: Defends against an antigen
Homologous Transfusion: Transfusion from others with compatible blood
Autologous Transfusion: Transfusion from one's own blood
Serum: Liquid portion of blood without coagulation proteins
Edema: Abnormal accumulation of fluids in intercellular spaces
The most active phagocytic cells found in circulating blood are: Monocytes and macrophages
How long does it take a blast cell to mature? 5-7days
What is the pH of blood: 7.35-7.45
A primary responce takes how many days to develop: 5-6
Folic-Acid deficiency Anemia: RBCs are large & deformed with a diminished production rate&life span.Caused by insufficient folic acid intake due to poor diet etc.
Hemolytic Anemia: Associated with premature destruction of RBCs usually accompanied by jaundice.Caused by the excessive destruction of RBCs or such disorders as erythroblastosis & sickle cell anemia
Hemorrhagic Anemia: Associated with loss of blood volume.Caused by acute blood loss
Iron-deficiency Anemia: Most common anemia world-wide.Caused by a greater demand on stored iron than can be supplied, usually due to diet
Pernicious Anemia: Chronic,Progressive disorder found mostly in people older than 50.Treatment B12shots.Caused by low levels of B12.
Sickle Cell Anemia: Most common genetic disorder in people of African descent.RBCs become crescent & irregularly shaped.
Aplastic(hypoplastic) Associated with bone marrow failure.Can be fatal.Caused by exposure to cytotoxic agents,radiation,hepV & certain medications