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PHYS 1501

CPG Physiology Exam 1 Material

Physiology Study of life, specifically how cells, tissues, organs, and whole organisms function
Chemical Level Molecules composed of atoms (1st level of functional organization of the body)
Cellular Level Basic unit of life (2nd level of functional organization of the body)
Tissue Level Group of cells with similar structure and specialized function (3rd level of functional organization of the body)
Organ Level Two or more kinds of tissue that perform a particular function (4th level of functional organization of the body)
Body System Level 11 Body Systems of a Human (5th level of the functional organiation of the body)
Organism Level Highest level of the functional organization of the body
Epithelial cells Specialized for exchanging materials between the cell and its environment
Connective cells Connects, supports, and anchors structures together
Tendons, bones, and blood Examples of Connective cells
Muscle cells Specialized cells for contraction and generation of force
Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth Examples of Muscle Cells
Nerve Cells Specialized for initiation and transmitting electrical impulses
Homeostasis Dynamic steady-state of the constituents in the internal fluid environment
Specialized activities of the cells that make up the body systems are aimed at maintaining what? Homeostasis
Homeostasis-Maintenance of a ________ internal environment even in the face of extreme changes Relatively stable
Extracellular Fluid (ECF) Fluid environment in which the cells live (fluid outside the cells)
Plasma, interstitial fluid Two components that make up extracellular fluid (ECF)
Intracellular Fluid (ICF) Fluid contained within all body cells
Circulatory System Transports and exchanges materials
Digestive System Obtains/breaks dietary food and eliminates undigested food
Respiratory System Obtains O2, eliminates CO2
Urinary System Removes and eliminates wastes from plasma
Skeletal System Provides support for soft tissues
Muscular System Moves the bones
Integumentary System Serves as an outer protective barrier
Immune System Defends against foreign invaders
Nervous system Rapid control and coordination of activities
Endocrine System Regulation of long-lasting activities
Reproductive System Perpetuation of the species
What three things must control systems be able to do? 1) Detect deviations from the norm, 2) Integrate information, and 3) Restore to desired value by making adjustments
Feedforward Mechanism Used for responses made in anticipation of a change in homeostatic control
Feedback Mechanism Responses made after change has been detected (either positive or negative feedback)
Negative Feedback System Primary type of control that maintains stability by defending set points. Opposes initial change and is composed of a SENSOR, an INTEGRATOR, and an EFFECTOR
Positive Feedback System Not as often and drives physiological values away from the set point. Amplifies an initial change (oxytocin and birth, opening sodium channels during depolarization)
Pathophysiology Abnormal functioning of the body associated with disease
Plasma Membrane Cell membrane that surrounds and defines every cell. Separates cell contents from its surroundings (ICF and ECF) and controls movement molecules into and out of a cell
Nucleus Largest single organized cell component enclosed by a double-layered membrane (nuclear envelope) that contains the DNA. Pierced by pores that allow traffic between nucleus and cytoplasm.
Cytoplasm Cell interior that consists of ORGANELLES and CYTOSOL.
Organelles Little "organs" that are distinct, highly organized, and enclosed in membranes
Cytosol Complex, semiliquid gel-like mass in which the cytoskeleton is found
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Functions to manufacture both proteins and lipids. Elaborate fluid-filled membranous system distributed throughout the cytosol
Rough ER Site of protein synthesis. Surface has attached ribosomes that synthesize, fold, and modify proteins
Smooth ER Site of lipid synthesis with tiny tubules where central packing and discharge occurs
Golgi Complex Processes raw materials into finished products and sorts/directs products to their final destinations. Closely associated with ER and consists of membrane enclosed sacs called CISTERNAE
Lysosomes Serve as an intracellular digestive system. Membranous sacs that contain HYDROLYTIC enzymes that catalyze hydrolysis reactions. Remove aged or damaged organelles or parts of the cells by PHAGOCYTOSIS
Phagocytosis A Lysosome interjects a bacterium inside of a phagocytic vesicle and breaks down molecule into parts that can be excreted or absorbed
Peroxisomes Membranous sacs that house oxidative enzymes to strip hydrogen from organic molecules (detoxify various waste products). Major product generated is HYDROGEN PEROXIDE H2O2
Catalases Present inside peroxisomes that decompose H2O2 into water and oxygen
Mitochondria Enclosed by a double membrane (inner folds are cristae) and matrix inner cavity contains enzymes for CITRIC ACID CYCLE and ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN. Mitochondria major site of ATP production (~90%)
Vaults Octagonal barrels with hollow interior that serve as cellular tracks (transport vehicles). Might contribute to multi-drug resistance (cancer cells)
Cytosol Occupies about 55% of total cell volumes. Semi-liquid part of cytoplasm that surrounds the organelles. Contains the CYTOSKELETON. Associated with enzymatic regulation on intermediary metabolism, ribosomal protein synthesis, and storage of fat and carbs
Cytoskeleton Complex protein network of cytosol that serves as "bone and muscle." Three types are MICROTUBULES, MICROFILAMENTS, and INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS
Microtubules Largest element assembled into hollow tubes of tubulin. Transport secretory vesicles and move specialized cell projections (cilia/flagella). Formation of MITOTIC SPINDLE during cell division
Microfilaments Smallest element assembled into two strands of action. Involved in contractile systems, cell division, and cell locomotion. Mechanical supports or stiffeners (microvilli)
Intermediate filaments Medium sized elements assembles as polypeptide strands forming tough, durable fibers. Maintain cell structural integrity and resist mechanical stress.
Microtubular highway in a nerve Secretory vesicle attached to a kinesin molecule travels down a microtubule to release contents of vesicle. The dyenin molecule has a debris vesicle attached that travels down the microtubule (toward nucleus) and delivers vesicle to lysosome.
Plasma Membrane Extremely thin layer of LIPIDS and PROTEINS that form outer boundary of all cells, controls movement of molecules between cell and environment (PERMEABILITY BARRIER). Detect chemical messengers at surface, link adjacent cells (MEMBRANE JUNCTIONS
Plasma Membrane-2 Anchors cells to extracellular matrix
Intraceullular Fluid Fluid contained within all body cells
Extracellular Fluid Fluid environment in which cells live. Two components are PLASMA and INTERSTITIAL FLUID
Components of Plasma Membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS are most abundant lipid responsible for membrane permeability
Phospholipid Polar head is HYDROPHILIC (water loving) and the non-polar tail is HYDROPHOBIC (water fearing). It is AMPHIPATIC (hydrophobic and hydrophilic). In oil, associate with heads arranged towards water and tails to oil.
What are the four components of the Plasma Membrane? Carbohydrates, Cholesterol, Integral Proteins, and Peripheral Proteins
Carbohydrates Small amount present on outer surface that serve as identifying markers. Enable cells to identify and interact with one another
Cholesterol Determinant of membrane fluidity located inbetween phospholipid molecules. Acts as buffer preventing agents (alcohol) from increasing membrane fluidity
Integral proteins Proteins embedded in and anchored to the cell membrane
Peripheral proteins Proteins loosely attached to either intracellular or extracellular side of cell membrane
Functions of Membrane Proteins CHANNELS, TRANSPORTERS, PUMPS, RECEPTORS, ADHESION MOLECULES (CAMs), Recognition in cell to cell interactions
Cell to Cell Adhesions Bind groups of cells to tissues and package them into organs. After arranged, cells held together by EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, CELL ADHESION MOLECUES, and SPECIALIZED CELL JUNCTIONS
Extracellular Matrix Adhesion Serves as biological "glue". The major types of protein fibers interwoven in the matrix include COLLAGEN, ELASTIN, and FIBRONECTIN
Cell Adhesion Molecules (Plasma Membrane) Consist of SELECTINS, INTEGRINS, and CADHERINS
What are the three types of specialized cell junctions? Desmosomes, Tight Junctions, and Gap Junctions
Desmosomes Type of ADHERING special cell junction that act as "spot rivets" anchoring two closely adjacent but not-touching cells. Most abundant in tissues that are subject to considerable stretching
Tight Junctions Type of IMPERMEABLE specialized cell junction that firmly bonds adjacent cells together. Seals off passage between two cells and found primarily in EPITHELIAL tissue (prevents undesirable leaks within epithelial cells)
Specialized Cell Junctions Type of COMMUNICATING specialized cell junction that links two adjacent cells by forming small connecting tunnels called CONNEXONS. Abundant in cardiac and smooth muscle. Non-muscle tissues unrestrict passage of small nutrient molecules between cells.
Specialized Cell Junctions-2 COMMUNICATING junction that allows direct transfer of small signaling molecules to travel from one cell to the next
Cell membranes are what? Selectively permeable due to RELATIVE SOLUBILITY of particle in the lipid, and SIZE of the particle
What two forces are involved in accomplishing transport across membranes? Passive forces and Active forces (energy/ATP required)
What are the two different types of membrane transport? Unassisted membrane transport and Assisted membrane transport
Unassisted Membrane Transport Movement of particles across a membrane known as OSMOSIS (movement of water) and DIFFUSION (movement of solutes across a lipid bilayer or through a protein/ion channel)
Created by: jgk25