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Glossary SS11 N-P

Text Glossary for all things beginning with N to P

National Debt The total amount of money owed by the government of Canada. The national debt became a problem for Canada during the 1970s and 1980s when both Liberal and Conservative governments spent much more money than they took in.
National Energy Program (NEP) Established by the Trudeau government after the 1970s oil crisis. It set the price of Alberta oil and this alienated Western Canadians as it called into question who owns the natural resources of the provinces.
National Film Board It was created in 1939 by the government as a way of distributing propaganda to Canadians during the Second World War. Since that time it has produced thousands of documentary films about Canada or Canadian topics.
Nationalism A strong attachment to one's nation, often mentioned as a chief cause of the outbreak of World War I in 191 4. Many of the nations of Europe were nationalistic, to the extent that they were willing to go to war.
Natural increase The difference between the crude birth rate and crude death rate.
Netherlands campaign During the late winter and spring of 1944-45, the Canadian Army fought in the Netherlands and was responsible for the liberation of that country. Over 8000 Canadian soldiers lie buried in the Netherlands.
Net migration rates The difference between the immigration and emigration rates.
New Deal (Canada) The much more famous New Deal was that introduced by US President Roosevelt in 1933. In 1935, however, Prime Minister Bennett introduced his own "New Deal". He promised unemployment insurance, better old age pensions, help for farmers, and fairer taxes.
New Democratic Party In 1961 the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation formally allied itself with the Canadian Labour Congress and changed its name to the New Democratic Party of Canada. The party's ideology has been left wing. It is Canada's major democratic socialist party.
Newfoundland Newfoundland held a referendum in 1948 and voted to join Canada, thus becoming the tenth province in 1949.
Newfoundland Regiment On July 1, 191 6, took part in the Battle of the Somme, near the village of Beaumont Hamel in France. The battalion was nearly wiped out, with 90% casualties.
Newly industrialized countries Refers to countries that are building up their industries and infrastructure. These countries are generally shifting ,from an agricultural to an industrial economy.
Nisg'a Land Claim A struggle by the Nisg'a, Citksan, and Wet'suwet'en tribes of the Nass Valley in northern British Columbia the Nisg'a agreed to a settlement in 1996. The only treaty signed in BC in modern times.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) A military alliance established in 1949 to defend Western Europe against any possible Soviet invasion. The present alliance consists of 26 nations, including nine countries that formerly belonged to the Warsaw Pact.
Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) Relief and development organizations that represent religious or service groups operating aid projects in developing countries. Some examples of NCOs include the Red Cross, Doctors Without Borders, and World Vision.
Non-renewable resources These are resources that can be used only once. Examples are oil or natural gas.
Notwithstanding clause This clause allows governments to pass a law that violates a specific freedom under the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The clause expires five years after it is invoked but may be renewed if the government so desires.
NORAD North American Air Defense Command was formed by a treaty in 1957. Under this treaty Canada and the US jointly share responsibility for the air defense of North America.
Nutritional density The measure of how much nutrition in calories an area of land can produce.
October Crisis On October 5, 1970, members of the FLQ kidnapped British Trade Commissioner James Cross in Montreal, and demanded the release of jailed FLQ members.
Official Languages Act Passed by tbe Trudeau government in 1969. The Act made Canada an officially bilingual country. It required the federal government to provide services in both languages across Canada in all federal institutions.
Oka Confrontation land. The Mohawk Warrior Society decided to stop the expansion, which led to a stand off between the Quebec Police, the Canadian Army, and the Mohawk warriors.
Old Age Pensions Act Passedin 1927. Provided a pension of $240 a year for people over 7CLnot a large amount of money, even at that time, but was the first measure passed that developed into the Canada Social Safety "net".
"On to Ottawa Trek" In 1935, over a thousand men from the relief camps attempted to go to Ottawa by train to protest against camp conditions. They were stopped in Regina and only the leaders were allowed to go on and meet with Prime Minister Bennett.
"One Big Union" Formed at the Western Labour conference in 1919, its purpose was to represent all Canadian workers, in an attempt to have a greater influence over industry and government.
One-child policy A policy began by the Chinese government in 1980 to control the rapidly growing population. Cash rewards, free medical care, and better educational opportunities were offered as incentives to parents who had only one child.
One Hundred Days Campaign 1918 The last one hundred days of the First World War, from August to November 11, 1918, saw the Canadian Corps take the offensive against the German Army.
Barbarossa Code name for the German invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on June 22,1941.
Operation Overlord The code name for the Allied attack on Normandy on June 6,1944.
Order in Council A decision made by the Cabinet that has the force of law unless overturned by the House of Commons.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Formed during the 1960s, mainly consists of Middle Eastern oil producing countries. These nations collectively decide on the amount of oil that they will produce, thus determining the price of oil throughout the world.
Ortona A town in South Eastern Italy where some of the most bitter fighting involving Canadian soldiers in the Second World war took place in December 1943.
Ottoman Empire Before the First World War, the name used for the Turkish Empire. In the seventeenth century, it had dominated most of South Eastern Europe. By 1 91 4, the European part of the Empire had been reduced to a small area of land near Istanbul.
Our Common Future (Brundtland Commission) A United Nations report published in 1987 that suggested people in the developed world needed to reduce resource consumption to develop a sustainable lifestyle for the whole world.
Ozone A special kind of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere that blocks the ultraviolet (UV) rays of the sun. UV rays are cancer-causing in humans and can damage plant and animal life.
Ozone layer Part of the outer atmosphere that protects the Earth from the harmful affects of solar radiation.
Pandemic An epidemic that occurs over a wide geographic area.
Parliament In our government system the parliament has legislative power, that is, the power to make laws. For the federal government it is made up of the House of Commons, the Senate, and the Governor General.
Parti Quebecois Separatist party in Quebec founded by Ren6 L6vesque in 1967. The party came to power in 1976, and failed in its attempt to have a sovereignty association referendum passed in 1 980.
Party Discipline Refers to the fact that members of parliament are expected to follow the ideas put forth by the political party as they are enforced by he Party Whip.
Party platform The beliefs, or ideology that a political party wants people to accept and therefore vote them into office. This term also refers to promises made by a party before or during an election campaign.
Party Whip Each party in the House of Commons has one person who fills the role of keeping party members in line and ensuring that all members vote according to the collective desire of the party.
Passchendaele, Battle of British offensive at Passchendaele Ridge near Ypres, Over 15 000 Canadians were killed in the Battle. Conditions were so bad that many soldiers actually drowned in the mud and water that filled the many shell holes on the slopes of the ridge.
Patriation of the Constitution Bringing home the BNA act from Britain to finally make Canada independent. It was Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau's plan to "bring the Constitution home to Canada" so it could be amended in Canada and be truly a Canadian document.
Patronage Rewarding people who have worked for a political party by appointing them to the Senate or some other government position. This practice has led to the accusation that the best person is not being appointed to a particular position.
Peacekeeping Used by the United Nations to maintain peace in a previous war zone.The responsibility of peacekeeping soldiers is to keep two sides apart and prevent any further conflict.
Pearl Harbour The Japanese naval air force made a surprise attack on the US naval base at Pearl Harbour Hawaii on December 7 1941. The attack put the US into the war.
Pearson, Lester Bowles 1897-1972 1956 during the Suez Crisis,it was his work that created a United Nations peacekeeping force -awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957.-Canadian flag was introduced-Canada Health Act-Student Loan Plan-the Canada Pension Plan-and "colour blind immigration".
Per capita GDP Divide the GDP by the number of people in a country to find the average GDP per person or per capita.
Permafrost Permanently frozen subsoil in the northern parts of Canada. The amount and level of permafrost is being affected by global warming.
Persons' Case In 1928 five female activists including Emily Murphy, challenged Mackenzie King to appoint a female senator. The Supreme Court of Canada ruled that women were not "persons" under the terms of the BNA Act. The women won this case.
Pickford Mary 1892-1979 A Canadian movie star who went to Hollywood in the 1920s and became known as "America's sweetheart".
Point system In 1967, Lester Pearson's Liberal government introduced a "colour blind" point system to Canada's immigration policy. awarded points on the basis of such factors as education, job skills, age, languages spoken, etc.
Political parties Made up of people who share certain common beliefs that they want the voters to accept and therefore elect their party into office.
Population density The number of people living in a given area. May also be referred to as crude density which can be determined by dividing the population of a country by its area.
Population distribution Where people live on the surface of the Earth.
Population pyramid A graph divided into five year intervals by male and female that shows the age and sex structure of a population.
Poverty Measure of the amount of money individuals have available to look after all their needs. In Canada poverty is defined as having to spend more than 56% of a person's income on the necessities of life such as food, shelter, and clothing.
Premier The head of a provincial government.
Pressure groups A group of people who share a certain set of ideas and want to influence government policy in order to promote their interests.
Prime Minister Is the leader of the political party that wins the most seats in the House of Commons. The prime minister serves as the head of government, leader of the nation, and leader of a political party.
Primary industries Refers to industries that gather raw materials such as mining, logging, or fishing.
Private member's bill A bill introduced into the House of Commons by a member who is not part of the cabinet. Very rarely does a private member's bill ever become law.
Productivity The level of economic output for a country. A country based on a traditional economy will have a low level of productivity. A country with a developed economy will have a high level of productivity.
Progressive Party A federal political party formed in 1919.Supported a policy of free trade and public ownership of railways. The Progressives were largely responsible for persuading Mackenzie King to introduce an old age pension scheme in 1927.
Progress of Nations Report (PNR) A new child risk index developed by UNICEF. Measures five factors:the mortality rates of children under five,percentage of children underweight,number of children not in primary school,the risk from armed conflict,and the risk from the disease HIV/AIDS.
Prohibition led by Women's Christian Temperance Union. Returning soldiers WWI did not support and provincial governments then regulated liquor with government liquor stores.Prohibition,however,remained in force in the US until 1933.Canadians became"rumrunners".
Proportional representation A system where the number of seats a party gets in the House of Commons or legislature is based on the number of votes it receives.
Propaganda Used extensively by the government during both the First and Second World Wars.
Prosperity As part of the economic cycle prosperity refers to a period when the economy is strong, unemployment rates are low, and the amount of wealth created is high.
Protest Party During the 20th century a number of protest parties existed in Canada. All of these parties had one thing common: they were formed to protest against the policies of one of the two so-called "old line parties—the Conservative Party and, the Liberal Party.
Protected Areas Strategy (PAS) A British Columbia government plan to preserve 12% of provincial land for parks by the year 2000.
Protectionism A policy whereby a government protects its own business and workers by placing high tariffs on goods imported from other countries.
Pull factors Situations occurring in the cities that are attracting poverty-stricken people from rural areas. The movement could be caused by hope for a better job, better education, or better health care, to mention a few.
Push factors Situations occurring in the countryside that are encouraging poor people to move to the cities. This is generally in developing countries and may be caused by things like division of land, natural disasters, or famine.
Created by: kstokowski