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Glossary SS11 J-M

Text Glossary for all things beginning with J to M

Judicial power The power to interpret the laws. This is done by the judiciary, which is independent .from the other branches of government.
Juno Beach The code name given to the Normand beach where the Canadian division landed on D-Day-june 6, 1944. It was one of five allied beaches, the others being Omaha (US), Utah (US), Cold (LIK), and Sword (UK).
Kennedy, John 1917-1963 Thirty-fifth President of the United States. His domestic policy aims of civil rights and social reform were mainly not achieved during his short presidency. He is best known for his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962
"Khaki election" The federal election of 1917. Many of the voters were men in uniform either in Canada or in Europe, hence the term "khaki"-the colour of the uniform.
King Byng Crisis 1926 Mackenzie King's minority government. King asked Governor General Byng to dissolve parliament and call an election. Byng refused. This was the last time a Gov.Gen. acted against the wishes of a PM
King, William Lyon Mackenzie 1874-1950 Canada's 10th Prime Minister first lead the Liberals to victory in 1921. He lead the party for 29 years, through the Roaring Twenties, the Depression of the Thirties, World War II and the post war reconstruction, before retiring in 1948.
Kitchen compromise, November 4,1981 last minute agreement between Ottawa and nine of the ten provinces (Quebec)to"escape clause" was added. Quebec. The "escape clause" became the "notwithstanding clause". (see "notwithstanding clause") accept the Charter as part of a new constitution if an
Klu Klux Klan A secret society that was founded in the United States during the nineteenth century. It promoted hatred against non-white people and Catholics. During the 1920s some branches of the Klan had been established in Canada.
Korean War 1950-1953 Canada joined the United Nations force that was sent to help South Korea defend itself from a North Korean invasion, which started in June 1950.
Kyoto Protocol An international agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 6% of the 1990 level by the year 201 2.
Land claims Claims to areas of land that aboriginal peoples believe are theirs due to historical occupation, no previous treaty having been signed by the aboriginal peoples concerned and the government of Canada.
Land Mines Treaty More than 120 countries have signed a treaty that bans the use of land mines. Land mines have been responsible for the maiming or death of hundreds or thousands of civilians (often children) long after an actual war is over.
Laissez Faire An economic philosophy that promotes the free market and free trade between nations.
Language rights The right to speak and have services in one of the two official languages of Canada.
Laporte, Pierre 1970 Quebec Labour Minister who was kidnapped by the FLQ five days after James Cross was taken. He was called the "Minister of Unemployment and Assimilation" by the FLQ. Laporte was later killed by the FLQ cell that had kidnapped him.
Leader of the official Opposition The leader of the second largest party in the House of Commons. Her or his role is to criticize the government and point out its weaknesses in the hope of gaining more support for her or his party in the next election.
League of Nations Formed as a result of agreements made at the Paris Peace talks of 1919.Purpose was to maintain peace throughout the world.The US never joined the League and Germany was not permitted to join until 1926. Canada, on Borden's insistence, was given a seat.
Legal Rights Rights that are guaranteed to all Canadians under Sections 7 to 14 of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
Legislative power The power of the government-federal, provincial, and municipal-to make laws. In the case of municipal governments they are called by-laws.
Legislature Law making body at the provincial level which is made up of all the elected representatives of that particular province.
Levesque, Rene 1922-1987 Founded Parti Quebecois.Quebec Premier 1976.1980 held a referendum on sovereignty association,losing60%to40%.1981,he refused to agree with the compromise constitutional package.It was signed into law in 1982 without the consent of Quebec.
Liberal Party of Canada The political party of the centre of the political spectrum. The party can shift to the left or right depending of the attitudes of Canadians at the time and therefore has been able to maintain its position of power in the country
Liberalism A political ideology of the centre that supports change when most people want it. It also believes that the government should try to improve the lives of citizens. In Canada the Liberal Party follows the ideology of liberalism.
Lieutenant Governor The monarch's representative at the provincial level.
Life expectancy The average number of years that an individual is expected to live.
Literacy rates The number of people who can read and write in a country per 1000 of population of that country.
Lloyd George, David 1863-1945 Liberal Prime Minister of Great Britain during the First World War and durirlg the Paris Peace talks of 191 9.
Lobbyists People who are paid to represent the interests of a particular group to the government. They will try to influence the government to make decisions to benefit the group they represent.
Longboat, Tom 1887-1949 Famous aboriginal long distance runner for Canadian Army in World War I. He served as a runner carrying messages between the trenches. At the beginning of the War aboriginal men were not allowed to join the forces. Later, however, this policy was changed.
Lougheed, Peter Progressive Conservative Premier of Alberta who led the fight against the federal government's National Energy Program of the 1970s and early 80s.
Low density A type of housing found in suburbs characterized by few people per hectare.
Lusitania British passenger ship sunk by a German U-boat in 1915.Great loss of life, including many American citizens. Anger in the US began the change in American attitudes towards participation in the First World War. The US entered the war in April 1917.
Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion A group of volunteer soldiers from Canada who joined the International Brigade to fight against the right wing General Franco in the Spanish Civil War during the late 1930s.
MacPhail, Ages 189-1954 In 1921 she became the first woman elected to the House of Commons. During her time in office she fought for prison reform, disarmament, and equal pay for equal work for women.
Majority government Refers to a party in the House of Commons that forms the government with more that 50% of the seats under its control.
Making a law 3 reading in House of Commons and 3 in Senate then signed by Gov.Gen. 1st reading(hand out)2nd (debate) 3rd (vote)
"Maltre Chez Nous* This refers to the slogan of the Liberal party in the 1962 election. It meant to strengthen Quebec's control of its economy by encouraging more French participation in business activities.
Manhattan Project Code name for the project to build the first atomic bomb. Canadian scientists took part in this project and the uranium used for the bombs came from Canada.
Manning, Preston 1942- Son of Eament Manning, who was a long-time Premier of Alberta. He founded the Reform Party of Canada in 1987 and subsequently served as leader of the Official Opposition from 1997 to 2000.
Massy Commission Established 1949,to investigate Canadian culture. Its 1951 report recommended that Canadian culture be protected from American influences. One result was that the Canada Council was established in 1957 to give grants to theatres, artists, and writers.
McCarthyism US Senator Joseph McCarthy,chairman of the Committee on Un-American activities in the early years of the Cold War. Held hearings to root out communists.Several prominent US citizens were falsely accused.
McClung, Nellie 1873-1951 Manitoba woman who led the struggle for Canadian women to gain the right to vote. As a result, Manitoba was the first province to grant the vote to women.
McLaughlin, Beverly 1936 The first women to be appointed Chief justice of the Supreme Court of Canada. She was appointed in the year 2000 and had previously been a member of the Supreme Court of British Columbia.
Medical Care Act "Medicare" Introduced by Pearson's Liberal government in 1966 which was led by Tommy Douglas who had been the "father of Medicare" in Saskatchewan.
Meech Lake Accord 1987 Held at Meech Lake. Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, an attempt to satisfy the constitutional demands of the Quebec government, which had refused to sign the 1982 new Canadian constitution. Quebec demanded "distinct society", and control over immigration.
Mega Project Massive-scale projects that require great amounts of money to build. Examples include the Trans-Canada Highway and the St. Lawrence Seaway.
Meighen, Arthur 1874-1960 Replaced Borden as the leader of the Conservative Party in 1920, automatically becoming Prime Minister. Served as leader of the Opposition from 1921 -1 926; became Prime Minister for a few days during the King Byng
Militarism A nation's policy of placing an unusually great emphasis on maintaining strong military forces. Glorification of things military. Often considered to be one of the chief causes of the First World War.
Military Voters' Act 1917 Borden introduced this law to allow men and women who were serving overseas during the First world War to vote. He correctly expected that most of them would vote for conscription.
Minister A person who is in charge of a department of government and therefore is a member of the Cabinet.
Minority government A government whose party has less than 50% of the seats in the House of Commons, or in a provincial legislature.
Minority rights The rights of minorities based on ethnicity, race, or sexual orientation are explicitly protected by the Charter of Rights and Freedoms or by judicial interpretations of the Charter.
Mobility rights Rights to move and live in any part of Canada. This is closely related to language rights since services must be available in both official languages across Canada. Both of these are protected in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms
Mulroney, Brian 1939- Progressive Conservative Prime Minister of Canada from 1984-1 993. Noted for the establishment of the Free Trade Agreement with the US in 1989, and the subsequent formation of NAFTA.
Multiculturalism Act Policy adopted by the federal government in 1971 to support and encourage all ethnic groups in Canada to honour their culture and share it with the rest of Canada.
Multinational companies Companies that operate in a number of different countries. Because of their economic power they can at times dictate prices paid to producers in developing counties.
Multilateral aid Aid to some less-developed country or region that is funded by a number of different governments.
Multiplier effect Refers to the availability of non-basic activity jobs that expand as the basic activity expands. Generally it is estimated that for every basic activity job three non-basic activity jobs are created.
Munich Conference (September 1938) (considered to be the height of the appeasement policy) the leaders of Britain and France agreed to allow Hitler to annex the Sudetenland, a German-speaking part of Czechoslovakia, to Germany. Hitler claimed that this would be his last territorial claim.
Municipal government Government of a city, town, or village. Has an elected mayor and alderpersons or councilors who make rules called by-laws for their local area.
Murphy, Emily 1868-1933 A leading suffragist, she became the first female judge appointed in Alberta.
Mussolini, Benito 1883-1945 Fascist leader of Italy from 1922-1 943. German "puppet leader" of Italy from 1943-1 945. Canada was at war with Italy from 1940 to 1943 and continued to fight against the Germans in Italy from 1 943-1 945.
Created by: kstokowski