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Glossary SS11 G-I

Text Glossary for all things beginning with G to I

Gas warfare In April 191 5 at the 2nd Battle of Ypres, the Germans used gas warfare for the first time. It was subsequently used by both the Germans and the Allies for the rest of the First World War. Heavier than air, mustard and chlorine gases had devastating resul
Genetical modified plants Refers to t 1e process of genetically altering the structure of a plant by gene splicing in order to make more resistant or heartier plants.
Gouzeninko,lgor 1919-1982 A cipher clerk at the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa who defected to the West in 1945.He had proof that the Soviets were spying on the west in order to obtain atomic secrets-one of the first events of the Cold War.
Globalization Refers to the process by which regions and countries around the world have become more interconnected and interdependent through increased trade and commerce as a result of multinational companies establishing themselves in the region or country.
Global warming The result of excessive carbon dioxide accumulation that traps heat in the atmosphere and results in warmer than average temperatures and erratic weather conditions.
Governor General The monarch's representative in Canada.The governor general gives royal assent to bills (signs bills) before they become law, performs ceremonial duties, and ensures the country always has a Prime Minister.
Greenhouse effect The burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas has resulted in the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that does not allow heat to dissipate into space.
Greenpeace Environmentalist movement established in British Columbia in 1970.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) The total value of all goods and services produced in a country in one year.
Groundwater The portion of the world's water supply that is underground in natural reservoirs of aquifers.
Group of Seven Famous Canadian artists of the 1920s and 1930s who revolutionized the painting of Canadian landscape.Using vivid colours and broad brush strokes, they interpreted Canada as they saw it..
Gulf War 1991 Iraq, led by Saddam Hussein, invaded neighbouring Kuwait in August 1990. The United Nations subsequently approved the use of force to evict the lraqi forces.
Gun control During the 1990's, the Chretien government had legislation passed in Parliament that forced all Canadian gun owners to register all firearms.
Haig, Field Marshall 1861 -1928 British Commander of all British and Empire forces in 191 6-1 91 8, he was responsible for the strategies used at the Somme and Passchendaele, which resulted in huge casualty rates.
Halibut Treaty 1923 Important as the first treaty signed by Canada, completely independently from Britain. This particular treaty concerns fishing in the North Pacific.
Halifax Explosion 1917 Caused by the collision of the Imo and the munitions ship, Mont Blanc. The resulting explosion caused nearly 2000 deaths in Halifax and leveled a large part of the city.
Hansard Is the day by day record of all the debates that occurred in the House of Commons or in the Legislature of one of the provinces.
Head Tax In 1885 the federal government imposed a $50 "head tax" on each Chinese person immigrating to Canada. In 1903 the amount was raised to $500 per head. The tax was replaced in 1923 by the Chinese Exclusion Act.
High density The type o housing usually found in major cities where people live in apartment blocks, condominiums, or high rise buildings. There are a large number of people per hectare.
Highly indebted poor countries Countries that are less developed and have very large debt loads that are owed to international financial institutions or developed countries.
Hitler, Adolf 1889-1945 Leader of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945, he was responsible for the rearmament of Germany during the 1930s.
HIV/AIDS Virus that destroys the immune system that should protect the body from diseases. The disease is passed person to person through sexual acts, blood transfusions, used hypodermic needles, or from mother to child during birth.
Holocaust The name that has been given to the genocide of up to 20 million people and perhaps another 6 million Jews, by the German Nazis during the Second World War.
Hong Kong In the Fall of 1941, the Canadian government agreed to a request from Britain and sent two battalions of soldiers (about 2000 men) to help with the defence of Hong Kong.
House of Commons The elected part of the national government in Ottawa. Members are elected based on population. Elections must be held within a five year period. Currently there are 301 members in the House of Commons.
Howe, Clarence D. 1886-1960 A very influential minister in both Mackenzie King's and Louis St. Laurent's Liberal cabinets. From 1940 to 1945, as the Minister of Munitions and Supply.
Hughes, Sam 1853-1921 Canadian Minister of Militia in World War I. "Shell Committee" which oversaw the manufacturing of munitions in Canada. He gave Canadian soldiers use the Ross rifle, a weapon which was not suitable for the harsh conditions of the trenches.
Hundred Days,The A term which refers to the period from August 1918 to November 11, 1918, when the Canadian Corps remained constantly on the offensive and spearheaded the effort to drive the German Army out of France.
Hungarian Revolution 1956 An attempt by liberals in Hungary to overthrow the Soviet-backed Communist leadership of the country. The Soviet Union used very repressive means to put down the revolution. Thousands of Hungarian refugees were allowed to come to Canada as immigrants.
Human Development Index A United Nations-developed index that ranks countries using three measures: adult literacy, life expectancy, and per capita GDP.
Human rights Canada introduced a bill of rights in 1960 and has enacted both provincial and federal human rights' codes. The 1982 new Canadian Constitution included a Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
Ideology The common beliefs that members of a political party share.Ideologies vary from left to centre to right on the political spectrum.
Immigration policy Government policy sets the number of immigrants that would be allowed into the country. After Second world War,mainly Europeans. By 1967, however,that had changed to people from all areas, provided they met criteria for education and employment prospects.
Immigration, Post-War After the Second World War, some 2.5 million immigrants arrived in Canada, between 1945 and 1967. Most of these newcomers were from Europe.
Immigration rates The number of people entering a country in a given year per 1000 of population.
Imperial Conference 1926 Lord Balfour, submitted the Balfour Report that recommended that the British dominions be autonomous. The recommendations of the Report resulted in independence for those countries. It became law under the Statute of Westminster of 1931.
Imperialism The takeover of territories by a country in order to create an empire.
Indian Act Originally introduced in 1876, it is a paternalistic piece of legislation that established the policies of the federal government in its role of being responsible for lndians in Canada.
IncomeTax First introduced during World War It was a means of raising money for the war effort. It was to be a temporary measure!
Industrial heartland Refers to the area of southern Ontario and southern Quebec where Canada's major manufacturing and service industries are located.
Industrialization Changes in the economy to production using machine power in factories located in cities. Resulted in a movement of people to the cities to take jobs in industries.
Infant mortality rate The rate at which deaths of infants under one year of age occur in a country in a given period of time, usually one year, per 1000 live births in the same period.
Inflation An increase in the price of a commodity or service. Inflation is usually described as a percentage increase over the previous year of the cost of typical goods and services.
Influenza The so-called "Spanish 'flu" of 191 8-1 91 9 was one of the worst pandemics in human history. Between 30 and 50 million people died from it in most parts of the world, including Canada.
Infrastructure Refers to basic things in a country such as transportation and communication links, electric power distribution, schools, and hospitals that allow the country to function at a higher economic level.
Internment camps Used during World War I to intern over 8000 immigrants from Germany or Austria-Hungary. During World War II they were used to intern over 20000 Japanese Canadians.
Iron Curtain The term was first used by Winston Churchill to describe the situation in Europe after the Second World War when there was no communication and no knowledge about what was happening in the countries under the influence of the Soviet Union.
Italian Campaign A division of the Canadian Army took part in the allied invasion of Sicilyand ltaly in July 1943. Canadian soldiers fought at Casino, and also were responsible for the capture of Ortona in December 1943.
Created by: kstokowski