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Glossary SS11 C

Text Glossary for all things beginning with C

Carrying capacity The number of people that the land can support. If the population increases beyond the carrying capacity there will likely be famine or disease to reduce the population to a manageable level.
Census The process of collecting, compiling, and publishing demographic, economic, and social data at a particular time in a particular country. In Canada a major census is conducted every ten years.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Chemicals that were widely used in coolants, solvents, and aerosol spray cans, and are noted as the leading cause of the breakdown of the ozone layer.
Cloning The artificial production of living things from genetic material. The result is two plants or animals that are identical.
Cohorts The name given to the five year intervals of a population pyramid.
Contracting population A country with a birth rate that is lower than the death rate. Its population pyramid will be narrower at the base to indicate the low birth rate.
Crude birth rate The number of births in one year in a country per 1000 of population.
Crude death rate The number of deaths in one year in a country per 1000 of population.
Cabinet Members of the prime minister's political party who are appointed to head different departments of the government and act as advisers to the prime minister. The cabinet is the executive part of the government.
Cabinet solidarity Refers to the fact that all members of cabinet must support all decisions that are made by the cabinet. If a cabinet member cannot support a decision, he or she would be expected to resign.
Campbell, Kim Canada's first women Prime Minister. She called an election shortly after becoming leader of the Progressive Conservative Party that resulted in almost the total destruction of the party. She served as PM for only a few months in 1993.
Canada Act 1982 This document became Canada's new patriated constitution. Included most provisions of the BNA Act, a charter of Rights and Freedoms, and an amending formula. It was agreed to by the federal government and nine of the ten provinces.
Canada Council A government-sponsored organization formed in 1957 to provide funding for the arts in Canada. Individuals and groups can apply for public funding from the Council.
Canadian Bill of Rights Passed by the federal government in 1960. Recognized rights Canadians already had under the common law system. Since it was an act of Parliament, it could be changed by future parliaments.
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) Formed as publicly owned radio service in 1 936, its purpose was to provide Canadian-produced entertainment and news in competition with the many American radio stations that people listened to at the time.
Canadian Coalition for the Rights of the Child Conducts research on how well Canada is fulfilling it obligations under the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.
Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) Volunteer army formed in 1914 after the outbreak of war.
Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) The government agency responsible for the coordination and distribution of Canada's foreign aid program.
Canadian mosaic multiculturalism policy to allow all cultural groups tomaintain and celebrate their own identity in Canada.
Canadian Radio and Television Commission A federal regulatory body which oversees the granting of licences and the operation of all radio and television in Canada.
Candidate A person who is willing to put their name forward to run in a federal or provincial election
Carr, Emily 1871-1945 A British Columbia painter who became famous during the 1920s for her depictions of the West coast forests and aboriginal life.
Casualty In a war, military casualties are considered to be all those people put out of action by being wounded or killed. Also included are the missing.
Caucus Private meeting of all the members of one political party to discuss strategy for dealing with issues that will be debated in the House of Commons.
Chanak Crisis 1922 The British government asked Canada for military assistance in order to prevent a Turkish army from attacking Chanak, a British garrison in part of occupied Turkey.
Charleston A popular dance of the so-called "roaring '20s" (the 1920s).
Charlottetown Accord 1992 second attempt to amend the constitution in Canada. Its main provisions were to accept Quebec as a distinct society, reform the Senate to make it an elected body, and recognize aboriginal self- government. It was rejected in a national referendum.
Charter of Rights and Freedoms This became part of the new constitution adopted by Canada in 1982. It is a clear statement of the basic rights and freedoms enjoyed by all Canadians. It takes precedence over any law passed by any government, except
Chinese Exclusion Act Passed in 1923, this Act effectively prevented Chinese people from immigrating to Canada. It was not repealed until 1947.
Civil disobedience The act of breaking or refusing to keep a law that one considers to be unjust. Such action must be taken with great thought and consideration as the consequences can be very serious.
Civil law Usually involves disputes over contracts, property, or personal relationships. Usually involves disputes between individuals.
Clarity Bill After the 1995 Quebec Referendum, Prime Minister Jean Chr6tien1s Liberal government legislated the Clarity Bill, which called for a very clear question in any future Quebec referendum. The referendum would also have to be passed by a substantial majority
Clemenceau, Georges 1841 -1929 Prime Minister of France at the Paris Peace talks in 1919. He was an advocate of harsh penalties being imposed on Germany, including reparations, loss of territories and severe reduction in the size of the armed forces.
Cod fishing Until recent years, fishing was the backbone of the Newfoundland economy.
Cold War This name refers to the political and military rivalry between the West (USA and allies) and the Communist Bloc (USSR and allies) from theafter the Second World War to the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989.
Collective bargaining Allows wage and working conditions contracts between employers and unions to be freely negotiated.
Common law Decisions of judges over the years that form part of the Canadian legal tradition. These are known as precedents and they are used as the basis for future decisions that judges make.
Communism Political philosophy advocated by Karl Marx in the mid nineteenth century. Called for the overthrow of capitalist societies to be replaced by a dictatorship of the working class. From this would grow a classless society. During the twentieth century the R
Conscientious objector A person who refuses military service on the grounds of religious or moral opposition to war.
Conscription crisis 1917-1918 In 1917, after his visit to the front, Borden introduced the MilitaryService Act. The Act was particularly unpopular in Quebec where the voluntary enlistment rate had been much lower than in the rest of Canada. Borden decided to call an election over the
Conscription Crisis 1944 Because of bitter memories of the conscription Crisis of 1917, Mackenzie King's Liberal government did its best during the Second World War to avoid overseas conscription. In 1940, the National Resources Mobilization Act was passed, allowing conscription
Conservatism A right wing political ideology that believes government should play a small role in the lives of people. Tradition is important and change should only be accepted cautiously. The Reform Party, the Canadian Alliance, and the Conservative Party are all exa
Conservative Party of Canada An ideologically right wing party that was formerly known as the Progressive Conservative Party. It was formed as a result of a merger of the former Reform Canadian Alliance Party with the Progressive Conservative Party.
constituency A geographic area of the country or province that elects a member of the House of Commons or provincial legislature to represent that area.
Constitutional monarchy The recognition of the monarch (king or queen) as the head of state. The monarch is largely a figurehead with no real power in the governing of the country. Queen Elizabeth II is the official head of state of Canada.
Convention on the Rights of the Child Adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1989. Protects the economic, social, and cultural rights of children around the world.
Convoy system Used in both the First and Second World Wars. Several cargo ships would together sail from Canada to the UK protected by naval escort ships.
Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) A social democratic party formed in 1932 as a left wing alternative to the old line Liberal and Conservative parties which had failed to find a way out of the Depression. Led by J.S. Woodsworth, a prairie preacher, the party outlined its policies in the R
Corvette A small naval escort ship used extensively by the Royal Canadian Navy escort convoys during the battle of the Atlantic.
Cross, James 1921 See October Crisis
Currie, General Sir Arthur 1875-1914 Originally a real estate salesman in Victoria, Currie became the first Canadian Commander of the Canadian Corps in World War I. He had commanded one of the divisions at Vimy and all four divisions at Passchendaele, as well as during the 100 Days campaign
Cut-off Lands Lands taken from aboriginal reserves without aboriginal consent. In 1 92 7 aboriginal leaders appeared before a parliamentary committee in Ottawa to protest against these actions. The government simply passed legislation forbidding the raising or acceptan
Created by: kstokowski