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Surgical Tech Pharmacology Chapter 1

Absorption The process of a drug passing through a body surface to the tissues of the body
Action A description of the cellular changes that occur as a result of a drug
Adverse Effects Possible untoward secondary effect other than the desired effect
Adverse Reaction Harmful unintended reactions to a drug
Allergic Reaction Hypersensitivity to a drug with symptoms ranging from a rash to an anaphylaxis
Ampule Glass container for injectable drugs that must be broken at the neck to withdraw the medication
Anaphylaxis Severe life-threatening hypersensitivity to a foreign substance or drug; symptoms include dyspnea, chest pain or tightness, life-threatening arrhythmias, and death
Antagonism Opposing action of a drug that decreases or cancels the effect of another drug
Buccal Within the cheek
Contraindication Condition or situation that indicates a drug should NOT be given
Controlled Substance A drug that is controlled by prescription because of the potential for addiction or abuse
Cumulative Effect An increased effect of drug action it accumulates in the body
Distribution Circulation of a drug to the organs of the body after the drug is absorbed
Dosage Amount of drug given for the desired effect
Generic Name General, common, or nonproprietary name of drug
Homeostasis Body in normal, balanced state
Indication Condition that a drug is intended to treat
Inhalation The process of anesthesia by which an anesthetic gas is inhaled; some respiratory drugs also are inhaled as their route of administration
Intra-articular Injected into the joint
Intradermal(ID) Injected into layers of the skin
Intramuscular(IM) Injected into the muscle
Intravenous(IV) Injected into the vein
Local(anesthetic) Medication administered to produce temporary loss of sensation or feeling in a specific area
Parenteral Any route of administration NOT involving the gastrointestinal tract
Placebo Medication with inert or inactive ingredients given in blind drug studies with no chemical effect on the patient. Used to measure effectiveness of the "Real" drug being studied by comparing patients who take it and patients who take the real drug.
Potentiation Increased effect when two drugs are given simultaneously for greater action than if given separately; also known as synergism
Precautions List of conditions or types of patients that require closer monitoring for specific side effects when given a drug
Route The specific method of delivery of a drug; PO, IM, IV, etc.
Subcutaneous Beneath the skin
Sublingual Under the tongue
Topical Applied to a specific area for local effect, usually the skin or mucous membranes
Toxicity Condition that occurs when a dangerous amount of a drug is given and that can be fatal depending on the drug and body systems affected
Trade Name(Brand Name) Name assigned to a drug by a pharmaceutical company
Vial Glass or plastic container with a rubber stopper that must be punctured with a needle to withdraw a drug or reconstitute a drug in powder form
PO, NG, and R GI Tract Routes
SL, and Buccal medication Parenteral Route
IV, IM, SubQ, ID, Intracardiac, Intra-articular, Intraspinal, Intrathecal Injection Routes
Medication is applied directly on skin or mucous membranes and absorbed in the capillaries Topical
Medication is inhaled into the lungs and absorbed into the circulatory system Inhalation
bid Twice a day
cc Cubic centimeters
dc discontinue
g, gm grams
gt, gtt drop(s)
HS at bedtime
ID intradermal
IM intramuscular
IV intravenous
KVO keep vein open
mEq milliequivalents
mg milligrams
mL milliliters
NKA no known allergies
NPO nothing by mouth
PO by mouth
prn as needed
qid four times a day
R rectal
sub-Q, subQ subcutaneous
SL sublingual
stat immediately
T, tbs, tbsp tablespoon
t,tsp teaspoon
tid three times a day
X times
Analeptics Drugs used to stimulate the central nervous system
Analgesics Drugs used to relieve pain
Anesthetics Drugs used to provide anesthesia for surgical procedures; can be delivered by local, regional or general methods
Antibiotics Drugs used to treat infection
Anticoagulants Drugs used to reduce clotting factors of blood
Anticonvulsants Drugs used to reduce and/or stop seizures/convulsions
Antidiuretics Drugs used to decrease the excretion of urine
Antiemetics Drugs used to prevent nausea and vomiting
Cardiac medications Drugs used to increase or decrease heart function
CNS Stimulants Drugs used to stimulate nerve receptors within the central nervous system
Coagulants Drugs used to increase clotting factors of blood
Contrast media Agents used to enhance visualization of anatomical strucures and any abnormalities
Diuretics Drugs used to increase the excretion of urine
Dyes Drugs used to stain pathological specimens
Emetics Drugs used to induce vomiting
Gastric medications Drugs used to reduce secretions in the stomach
Hemostatic agents Chemical agents in a variety of forms that enhance clot formation
Hormones Drugs used to replace natural hormones usually produced in the body
Irrigation solutions Fluids used to flush, wash, or soak structures/tissues during surgery
Narcotic antagonists Drugs used to reverse the effects of narcotics
Narcotics Drugs with high potential for abuse
Neuromuscular Blocking Agents Drugs used to relax skeletal muscles during surgery
Obstetrical agents Drugs used during labor and childbirth
Ophthalmic medications Drugs used in the eye
Sedative/Hypnotic agents Drugs used to produce sedation or sleep
Tranquilizers Drugs used to produce relaxation
Is when the body processes a drug Pharmacokinetics
Is when the drug gets into the bloodstream Absorption
Is when the drug moves from the bloodstream into the tissues, fluids, and organs of the body Distribution
Is the physical and chemical changes that occur as the liver breaks down the drug and prepares it for excretion from the body Metabolism (biotransformation)
Is the process of the body removing the drug through the kidneys via urine Excretion
Is the term used to describe the interaction of the drug with the target cells Pharmacodynamics
Is the beginning of the drug's desired effect on the target cells within the body Onset
Is when the drug is at the most effective stage of the desired effect in the target cells Peak (effect)
Is the length of time between the onset of action and cessation of action Duration
Is the condition or symptom in the patient that the drug is intended to treat or alleviate Indication
Is the effect of the drug at the target cells Action
Are secondary effects and are not the desired effect of the drug Side Effects
Are secondary effects that are more severe than side effects Adverse effects
Is the reduced therapeutic response to a drug following repeated doses Tolerance
NG nasogastric tube
Relaxation Desired effect is muscle relaxation; working on CNS receptors, nerve impulses are blocked to stop or delay muscle spasms
Sedation Desired effect is calmness and decrease of nervousness to the point of the patient being induced to a state of sleep
Amnesia Desired effect of IV conscious sedation agents and adjuncts to anesthesia in which the patient does not remember the immediate preoperative phase
Neuroleptic Desired effect is tranquilizing action
Analgesia Desired effect is to relieve pain; may be narcotic or nonnarcotic
Drying Agents Desired effect is to inhibit the secretion of fluids, usually in the respiratory tract
Gastric acid reduction Desired effect is to reduce or inhibit gastric(stomach) secretions during ohases of surgery and postoperatively
Vagal blockade Desired effect is to block stimulus to the vagus nerve, part of the autonomic nervous system
An action that occurs when an agent increases the effectiveness of another agent that is combined with it Synergist
A chemical or drug action that occurs naturally in the body Agonist
An action on the nervous system that occurs when a chemical or drug blocks the effect of a chemical or drug occurring naturally in the body (agonist) by combining with and blocking the agonist nervous receptor Antagonist
An action that occurs when a second agent is added to enhance the effect of the first agent Additive
Refers to an agent used to block parasympathetic effects such as salivation and bradycardia Antimuscarinic
Drawing in or out by suction. Aspiration
Used in the anesthetic setting to provide a breath-by-breath analysis of expired carbon dioxide aka end-tidal CO2 Capnography
Ultrasonic device used to identify and assess vascular status of peripheral arteries and veins by magnifying the sound of the blood moving through the vessel Doppler
Altered state of consciousness that may be achieved by suggestion of another, an individual's own concentration, or with the use of a substance Hypnosis
The second phase of general anesthesia, in which the patient is given induction drugs and intubated Induction
Post Anesthesia Care Unit PACU
The study of drugs and their actions Pharmacology
A group of liquids that rasily evaporate; when inhaled produce general anesthesia through interaction with the CNS Volatile agents
Increases blood pressure Vasoconstrictor
What are the 5 things needed for medication identification Drug Name(Trade and Generic Names), Manufacturer, Strength, Amount and Expiration Date
High Abuse potential and no current approved medical use is what Schedule or Class controlled substance Schedule or Class I
High Abuse potential and a high ability to produce physical and/or psychological dependence and for which there is a current approved or acceptable medical use is what schedule or class of controlled substance Schedule or Class II
Less potential for abuse than drugs in Class II and for which is a current approved medical use is what schedule or class of controlled substance Schedule or Class III
There is a reletively low abuse potential and for which there is a current approved medical use is what schedule or class of controlled substance Schedule or Class IV
Drugs that consist mainly of preparations containing limited amounts of narcotic drugs for use as antitussives and antidiarrheals is what shcedule or class of controlled substance Schedule or Class V
The ______ ______ of medication describes the application or situations for which the medication is used and the timing of the effects commonly associated with the given medication and dosage. Therapeutic Actions
A substance used as medicine for the diagnosis, treatment, cure, milligation, or prevention of a disease or a condition. Drug
An unavoidable effect or disease induced by pharmacologic therapy. Iatrogenic
A reason why a specific drug may be undesirable or improper in a particular situation. Indication
Adrenergic medication that is used for superficial bleeding that prolongs the effect of local anesthetics. Adrenalin or epinephrine
A analgesic used to treat moderate to severe pain in adjunct to general anesthesia. Sublimaze, Demerol or fentanyl citrate
___________ medications are pharmacologic agents that are prepared in a dosage generally safe to administer without the direction of a physician. OTC or over the counter
______ medication is injected into the subarachnoid space. Intrathecal
Muscle rigidity, increased production of carbon dioxide, tachycardia, and a significant rapid increase in core body temperature are signs of: Malignant hyperthermia
Reactions in the body that act to maintain the normal physiological state are called . homeostasis
Biotransformation, or metabolism, of a drug most often occurs in the: Liver
The 1,000 mL graduate pitcher, filled with sterile saline, on your back table is equivalent to which household volume? 1 quart
a condition in which a patient exhibits reduced cardiac output, tachycardia, hypotension, and diminished urinary output. Shock
To counteract narcotic overdose, patients will be given: Narcan
During which stage of general anesthesia might uninhibited movement, vomiting, laryngospasm, hypertension, and tachycardia be seen? Stage II
Most drugs are taken up by the bloodstream by: Passive transport
A medication that is administered enterally is given by which of the following routes? Oral or rectal
Which local anesthetic agents have a rapid onset of action with moderate duration and are part of the amino amide group? Lidocaine and Xylocaine
Cricoid pressure or Sellick's maneuver is applied for what purpose? o reduce the risk of aspiration during the induction of general anesthesia
A label reads 1,000 mg per 10 mL. How many mL will be required for a dose of 200 mg? 2 mL
Iatrogenic conditions are those adverse patient conditions resulting from the action of a health care provider.
Concentration of a medication refers to the: Ratio of solute to solvent
What provides a breath-by-breath analysis of end-tidal carbon dioxide? Capnography
What would be used to cause an overall reduction in body metabolism? Induced hypothermia
Referred to as the Amnesia Stage and begins with the initial administration of anesthetic agent to loss of consciousness. Stage I
Known as the Surgical Amnesia Stage. The last sense to be obtunded is hearing. Stage III
Referred to as the Overdose Stage.Dilated and nonreactive pupils mark this stage. Stage IV
Class 1 classification of patient assessing No organic, physiological, biochemical, or psychiatric disturbance
Class 2 classification of patient assessing Mild to moderate systemic disease disturbance: controlled hypertention, history of asthma, anemia, smoker, controlled diabetes, mild obesity, age less than 1 or greater than 70
Class 3 classification of patient assessing Severe systemic disturbance or disease: angina, post-myocardial infarction(MI), poorly controlled hypertension, symptomatic respiratory disease, and massive obesity
The name that is usually long and difficult to pronounce, is the scientific identification of the drug Chemical name
Destroys or inhibits the growth of pathogenic microorganisms, may be used in irrigating solutuins or given intervenously, avaliable in various forms, such as powders or ointments. Usually categorized in large groups Antibiotics
A forign substance used to outline various structures through x-ray examination, commonly used in biliary surgery to determine the presence of stones Contrast Medium
Heparin is a Anticoagulant
This stimulates uterine and mammary gland smooth muscles Pitressin
Neutralizes local anesthetic agents Sodium Bicarbonate
A drug given to reverse the effects of heparin is Protamine
Cefazolin Sodium (Keflex) is a(an) Antibiotic
Omnipaque, a water soluble iodine-based contrat medium is used for diagnostic imaging
This is a topical pharmacological agent that aids in hemostasis Surgicel
A category of drug that decreases inflammation is a (an) steroid
This is a vasopressor used as a pheripheral dilator that causes smooth muscle relaxation. It is used to dilate arteries during cardiac and peripheral vascular procedures Papaverine
What drug may be used to treat an allergy Antihistamine
An antagonist drug Neutralizes action of another drug
A radiopaque contrast medium that is used in surgery is renografin
Parenteral administration of a drug is administration with a needle
The trade name for epinephrine is adrenaline
Morphine is used for pain
Gelfoam, oxidized cellulose, microfibrillar and avitene are examples of hemostatic agents
What agency establishes standard for drugs Food and Drug Administration
A drug that stimulates or prolongs the responce of a drug or physiologic action a a/an agonist
Stable physiologic state homeostasis
This is a term used to describe the interaction of drug molecules with the target cells. The resulting action is biochemical and physiologic Pharmacodynamics
Prevention of disease or a condition prophylaxis
This is a long term treatment for the prevention of DVT's Coumadin (Warfin)
This blocks dopamine receptors to reduce nausea and vomiting antiemetics
gentian violet, brilliant green, indigo carmin and methyline blue are examples of____________ that leave a visible tract by staining an area of tissue. Dyes
This decreases postoperative edema related to surgery Decadron
increased effect when two drugas are given simultaneously for greater action than if given separately Potentiation
A list of conditions or types of patients that require closer monotoring for specific side effects when given a drug are Precautions
A drug used to produce paralyzation is a Neuromuscular blocking agent
A medication can be applied on mucous membrane for a local effect Topical medication
The drug getting into the bloodstream is Absorption
Used primarily as a profilactic in irrigation solution during surgical procedures Bacitracin
This can be used as a sedative before general anesthesia, commonly causes retrograde amnesia Versed
The desired effect is a tranquilizing action Neuroleptic
The surgical technologist must be able to correctly identify the necessary aspects of the drug intended for use to ensure the 6 rights are protected. No matter which type of packaging is used all drugs must be labeled by the manufacturer and the label Drug name, (trade and generic), Manufacturer, Strength, Amount, Expiration date
This must contain the name of the drug, dose, quantity and timing of medication A prescription
The ______ registers individuals who can order, purchase, or prescribe medications. In some states, controlled substances may only be ordered by physicians, using a more restricted type of prescribing DEA
A specific method of delivery of a drug Route
_______________ is when a drug is injected directly into the heart Intracardiac
_________________ is an opposing action of a drug that decreases or cancels the effects of another drug Antagonism
HBV, HCV, and HIV may be present in _________________ Blood, body fluids and unfixed tissues and organs.
Hepatitis means _____________________________________________ Inflammation of the liver.
Changes food into protein, makes proteins that stop bleeding and removes toxins from the body are all functions of ______? The liver.
5% of people living in the United States have been infected with _____? HBV
True or False Most people infected with HBV have no symptoms. True
The major consequence of HBV infection is the development of _________? Chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and liver cancer.
An estimated 5000 people in the U.S. die from _________ each year, caused by HBV. Chronic liver disease.
True or False There is no treatment for chronic HBV infection? False
True or False The HBV vaccine is recommended only for healthcare workers? False
The most common cause of chronic liver disease in the U.S. is? HCV
True or false Chronic liver disease caused by HCV is the #1 reason for liver transplantation in the U.S. True
True or False The average time between initial exposure to HCV and the development of symptoms is greater than that for HBV. False
True or False The chances of becoming infected with HBV or HCV from a work-related exposure is much less than the chances of becoming infected with HIV from a work-related exposure. False
True or False The probability of becoming infected with HIV following a work-related exposure is approximately 40%. False
True or false There is No vaccine for HIV True
True or false Death in AIDS patients is usually due to opportunistic infections True
True or False It may take years from the time a person is infected with HIV until he/she develops symptoms of AIDS True
In the healthcare setting, HBV, HCV and HIV can be transmitted by ________________ Sharps injuries, splash of blood/body fluids to the mucous membranes, and touching non-intact skin without vinyl/latex gloves.
Studies estimate that _____________ number of needlestick injuries occur each year in the U.S. 600,000 - 800,000
Needlestick injuries can be prevented by ______ Using safe needle devices and following the instructions for proper use.
True or False OSHA requires employers to develop an Exposure Control Plan if employees might be exposed to bloodborne pathogens while on the job. True
Which of the following is NOT a work practice control? a. hand hygiene practices b. personal protective equipment c. safe needle devices d. waste disposal techniques Safe needle devices
True or False Food and drink can be stored in areas where there may be exposure to blood/body fluids. False
True or False All biohazard waste must be labeled with the biohazard symbol and the word "BIOHAZARD" or placed into a red bag. True
True or False HCV vaccines must be provided at no charge to employees with possible job related exposure to bloodborne pathogens. True
True or False An employee who has an exposure to blood/body fluids should report the exposure as soon as possible. True
What is the maneuver performed to reduce the risk of aspiration? Sellick's Manuever, or the application of the cricoid pressure.
A mass of blood usually clotted, caused by a break in a blood vessel is? Hematoma
What are the six rights of medication administration? Right Patient, Right medication, right amount or dose, right time, right route, and right documentation
What is the name of the warming blanket used for hypothermia or hyperthermia? Bair Hugger
Which of the following is not a common administration unit? a. Tablets, capsules b. Teaspoons, tablespoons c. ounces d. drops e. units f. liters g. milliliters Units
a/b = c/d and a:b = c:d are examples of what? Ratio and proportion
Desired Dose(DD) / Dose On Hand(DOH) X Volume = X(unknown) is an example of what? Drug calculation Formula
1 kg = 2.2 lbs so what does 50 kg equal? 110 lbs
1 gram = 1000 mg so what does 250 mg equal? .25 grams
1 mg = 1000 mcg so what does 0.2 mg equal? 200 mcg
On the Fahrenheit Scale, freezing is what degrees and boiling is what degrees? 32 and 212
On the Celsius Scale, freezing is what degrees and boiling is what degrees? 0 and 100
Using C = 5/9(F-32) convert 98.6 degrees F to C 37
Using F = (9/5 x C) + 32 convert 55 degrees C to F 131
C1/C2 = V1/V2 or C1 x V1 = C2 x V2 are examples of ? Standard Dilution Equation
In the Standard Dilution Equation C = what and V = what? Concentration and Volume
Concentration is given as what? Percentage (%)
Volume is given as what? mL
If you are asked to mix a contrast media of 50mL of .5% contrast, and you have 1% contrast media, what is the amount of 1% contrast media you will need? 25mL
You have a weight based medication whose dosage is .04 mg to .1 mg/kg IV and a Repeat dosage of .01 mg/kg every 25 to 60 minutes. If your patient weighs 220 lbs, what would your loading dose be? Your repeat dose? In mL? 4 mg to 10 mg, 4 mL to 10 mL and 1 mg or 1 mL
Created by: BellaRu28