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History Final Terms

Terms for My Final Exam

nomad Migrant herder whose live revolved around their family and the seasons
Arab A follower of Islam
tribe A family travelling together
idols Figurine made to represent “sons and daughters of God" ,the lesser gods
Mecca Most important city in the Arabian peninsula; center for pilgrimage for Muslims
kabah Cube shaped house of worship
Abu Bakr Muhammad’s father-in-law and successor He stressed that Muslims worshiped Allah, not Muhammad He became caliph at age 59 but died two years later He was chosen by the tribal leaders to be Muhammad’s successor
caliph The term used for the “successor” of Muhammad Caliph was not a spiritual leader but rather a political and military leader (not a prophet) In the days of the Muslim Empire the caliph had the power of the “emperor”
Shiites This group of people believe that only family members of Muhammad can be the true successors Shiite means “the party of Ali” Believe that Ali, not Abu Bakr, should have been the first successor, so they do not accept the first 3 caliphs as successors
imam “Divinely guided” guided successor of Muhammad
Sunni This group of people follows the Sunna They accepted the first four caliphs They do not believe the Imam to be divinely guided They think all Muslims can have a direct relationship with God
Muhammad The prophet of God, founder of the Islamic faith
Qur'an The holy writings of Islam containing
monotheism The belief in one God
Allah The Islamic name for God
Islam A religion that was founded by Muhammad
hadith The written deeds and sayings of Muhammad
Sunna The authentic collection of Islamic teachings containing the Qur’an and the hadith
Medina Holy city to which Muhammad fled when he was rejected by the people of Mecca; the first city to accept Islam
5 Pillars The core duties for Muslims: profession of faith, prayers, alms, fasting during Ramadan, the hajj
Muslim Term for those who practice the religion of Islam. Term means “those who submit”
Jihad Meaning “struggle” ,the struggle to resist temptation and evil
Baghdad The 2nd Abbasid caliph Abu al Mansur made it the new capital of the Muslim empire because it was ideally located in 762 A.D. Economy relied on taxes and wealth from trade of the world and manufacturing Traders came from Scandinavia and Africa
Seljuk Turks In 1055 A.D. a nomadic tribe from central Asia allowed the caliph and his followers to stay in Baghdad but only as religious leaders Worked as a team for 200 years until 1258 when the civilization fell to the Mongols Ended the Abbasid Empire/Golden Age
Cordoba Ancient Roman city made the capital of Muslim Spain Home to the Great Mosque
Ferdinand(of Aragon) and Isabelle(of Castille) Rulers of the Catholic kingdoms of Aragon and Castille Once married their land combined had enough power to kick the Muslims out of Spain forever
steppe Large flat treeless plains
yurt A portable, bent wood-framed dwelling structure traditionally used by Turkic nomads in the steppes of Central Asia
clan •Patrilineal family groups, related by kinship, who had a formal leader usually the eldest male •Practiced anda which allowed a person to swear allegiance with a clan other than the one he or she was born into
Genghis Khan Born 1167 and Died 1227 •Genghis Khan was born as Temujin •In 1206 the assembly of tribal chiefs voted him the Great Khan •He organized the Mongol army into units while teaching them elaborate signals for communication on the battlefield •Genghis Khan created a language for M
Kublai Khan •Ghengis Khan’s great grandson’s rule, from 1260-1294 reached the height of the Mongol empire •Established a postal system and respected merchants
Constantinople A leading city during the Ottoman Empire that was home to the Great Market
Chief Osman •Governed a Muslim city state in Asia Minor and as they moved westward they became known as the Ottomans •He conquered Byzantine land and later captured the city of Bursa, the Ottoman capital, in 1326 A.D.
Ottomans •1500-1800 Chief Osman’s followers
sultan •The ruler of the Ottoman Empire who led or directed the campaigns of conquest •The succession of the sultan was heredity but the rules never specified which son should rule so a prince would often kill his brothers to become sultan
Istanbul •On the 8th try the city of Constantinople was captured by Sultan Mehmed •This fulfilled Muhammad’s call eight hundred years earlier for the Muslims to conquer Constantinople •Over the next 100 years Istanbul became a trading city full of Byzantine arc
Suleiman(the Magnificent) •Mehmed’s great- grandson’s rule reached the height of the Ottoman Empire, with a growing capital city of 200,000 •Suleiman adjusted laws to deal with a larger empire including fairly non-Muslims •Until 1683 the Ottoman Empire continued to grow
Himalayas •Great mountains of northern India
Babur •Muslim Turk of central Asia who conquered northern India and established the Mughal Empire in 1526
Ganges and Indus(rivers) •Two great rivers of India •Very fertile areas
Mughal Empire •Persian-Indian term for the empire ruled by the Mongols
Akbar •Grandson of Babur •Ruled from 1556-1605 •Greatest of the Mughal rulers •Great reformer and governor
Shah Jahan •Akbar’s grandson •Great builder •Moved capital to Delhi •Built Taj Mahal for his wife
Taj Mahal •Great tomb of Mumtaz Mahal •Built in 1631
Han Dynasty 206 B.C.-220 A.D.
Yang Jian Emperor Wen
Great Wall
Jimmu •The first emperor of Japan who became emperor in 660 B.C. by according to legend overthrowing the Storm Gods descendants
Shinto The early religion of Japan
Yoritomo A shogun who set up the warrior government in medieval Japan
shogun A title given by the emperor meaning “great general”
samurai A warrior who protected a daimyo’s house which later became a class that was mounted, armored warriors who often held positions as officials in the provinces; means “those who serve”
kamikaze The typhoon that aided that Japanese in beating the Mongols meaning “divine wind”
Zen A branch of Buddhism more concerned with the individual than the nation
Created by: Allison9