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a.c Before meals
p.c After meals
q2h,q3h Every x hours
ad Right ear
IV Intravenous
cap(s) Capsule(s)
liq Liquid
gm Gram
ml Millilitre
OTC Over The Counter
OD right eye
b.i.d twice daily
PRN As required
STAT immediately
as left ear
od Once Daily
elix Elixer
sol Solution
kg Kilogram
ss One Half
p.o By mouth
h hour
qd, qod Every other day
t.i.d Three times daily
au Both Ears
os Left eye
Gt, gtt Drop
tab Tablet
L litre
mitte Quantity
s Without
h.s At bedtime
q.h,qh Every hour
SC subcutaneous
IM Intramuscular
ou Both eyes
Gtt, gtts Drops
ung. Ointment
Mg Miligram
NPO nothing by mouth
What is a CPS used for IT is a resource used by medical professionals as a guideline to prescribing medications. Updated list of medications with detailed information on action indications & contraindications
What does ODB stand for, who uses it and who is it published by? Ontario Drug Benefits Program, is published by the ministry of health physicians use it and pharmacists to establish what medications are covered under the plan.
What is mechanism of action? The actions & interations of a drug after it has been absorbed by the body
Name the purpose of the ODB Provides financial assistance based on eligibility for families or individuals who cannot pay for drugs based on income.
Name 1 mechanism of action Synergism:the effects of 2drugs when taken together may change either increasing or decreasing their normal effect.
Name another mechanism of action Additive action: when more than one drug is taken, the effect of each individual drug is the same as it was expected to be. The individual effects are what they were expected to be.
Name a 3rd mechanism of action Tolerance: when more & more of a drug is required to get the desired effect
Name a 4th mechanism of action Cumulative action: the full effects of a drug are not felt for a period of time due to the half-life of the drug.
Name a 5th mechanism of action Half-life: Is the time that is takes the body to absord half the effect of the drug
Name a 6th mechanism of action Idiosyncrasy: Any unexpected adverse reaction specific to a person
Name 5 factors that affect drug action Gender, Age, Weight, Time of day, Tolerance, Drug interactions
Name 6 ways of administering drugs & explain Orally, Parenteral, Sublingual, Topical, Rectal, Inhalation/aerosols
What is chemotherapy Use of medications to treat cancer
Pharmacology is the field of medicine that studies what? Studies medications & their effects on the body
What is the difference between a Chemical name, Generic Name & Brand Name? Chemical Name:the molecular makeup of the drug. Generic Name:is the non-proprietary or general name assigned to it.Brand Name:the name given to the drug by a specific manufacturer.
What is drug toxicity The harmful effects of a drug, or the effects of an over abundance/over use of a drug.
List 6 routes that are parenteral & explain Intramuscular:into deep muscle tissue. Intravenous:Directly into a vein. 2-trak:Specific administration of a drug that may harm skin if given alternate mode. Intradermal:Between the layers of the skin. Subcutaneous: into the skin
Absorption Process by which medication is taken into the body
Allergies Serious reaction to a medication
Distribution Metabolites being transported to a various parts of the body
Enteric coated Helps medication to bypass the stomach
Excretion Accomplished mainly by the kidneys
Inhalation Drugs administered into the airway
Metabolism Process of breaking down a drug into metabolites
Otic Route Medications placed directly in ear
Parenteral Medications given by injection
Rx Renewal Extensions of prescriptons
Rx repeats Continuation of long-term medications
Side effects Every drug has them
Sustained release Delay in active absorption of medication
Topical MEdicine absorbed through mucous membranes
Therapeutic action Purpose for giving the drug
4 names can be used to identify a simple drug Botanical, Generic, Brand, Trade
what is a Pharmacologist One who packages & despenses the medication
Narcotics do what? Act on the central nervous system
Cumulative action Medication accumulates faster then your body can metabolise it.
Systemic Classification Rx circulates in the blood stream