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Affixes and roots*1

Affixes and roots

QuestionAnswer
dis- reverses the meaning of the verb disappear, disallow, disarm, disconnect, discontinue
over- too much overbook, oversleep, overwork
un- reverses the meaning of the verb unbend, uncouple, unfasten
mis- badly or wrongly mislead, misinform, misidentify
out- more or better than others outperform, outbid
be- make or cause befriend, belittle
co- together co-exist, co-operate, co-own
de- do the opposite of devalue, deselect
fore- earlier, before foreclose, foresee
inter- between interact, intermix, interface
pre- before pre-expose, prejudge, pretest
sub- under/below subcontract, subdivide
trans- across, over transform, transcribe, transplant
-ise cause to be stabilise, characterise, symbolise, visualise, specialise
-ate cause to be differentiate, liquidate, pollinate, duplicate, fabricate
-fy cause to be classify, exemplify, simplify, justify
-en cause to be awaken, fasten, shorten, moisten
anti- against anticlimax, antidote, antithesis
bi- two bilingualism, biculturalism, bi-metalism
co- joint co-founder, co-owner, co-descendant
counter- against counter-argument, counter-example, counter-proposal
dis- the converse of discomfort, dislike
ex- former ex-chairman, ex-hunter
hyper- extreme hyperinflation, hypersurface
in- the converse of inattention, incoherence, incompatibility
in- inside inpatient,
inter- between interaction, inter-change, interference
kilo- thousand kilobyte
mal- bad malfunction, maltreatment, malnutrition
mega- million megabyte
mis- wrong misconduct, misdeed, mismanagement
mini- small mini-publication, mini-theory
mono- one monosyllable, monograph, monogamy
neo- new neo-colonialism, neo-impressionism
out- separate outbuilding,
poly- many polysyllable
pseudo- FALSE pseudo-expert
re- again re-organisation, re-assessment, re-examination
semi- half semicircle, semi-darkness
sub- below subset, subdivision
super- more than, above superset, superimposition, superpowers
tele- distant telecommunications,
tri- three tripartism
ultra- beyond ultrasound
under- below, too little underpayment, under-development, undergraduate
vice- deputy vice-president
-tion action/instance of V-ing alteration, demonstration
-sion action/instance of V-ing expansion, inclusion, admission
-er person who V-s advertiser, driver
-er something used for V-ing computer, silencer
-ment action/instance of V-ing development, punishment, unemployment
-ant person who V-s assistant, consultant
-ent person who V-s student
-age action/result of V breakage, wastage, package
-al action/result of V denial, proposal, refusal, dismissal
-ence action/result of V preference, dependence, interference
-ance action/result of V attendance, acceptance, endurance
-ery/-ry action/instance of V-ing bribery, robbery, misery
-ery/-ry place of V-ing refinery, bakery
-er person concerned with N astronomer, geographer
-ism doctrine of N Marxism, Maoism, Thatcherism
-ship state of being N friendship, citizenship, leadership
-age collection of N baggage, plumage 
-ity state or quality of being A ability, similarity, responsibility, curiosity
-ness state or quality of being A darkness, preparedness, consciousness
-cy state or quality of being A urgency, efficiency, frequency
-al make ajective central, political, national, optional, professional
-ent make ajective different, dependent, excellent
-ive make ajective attractive, effective, imaginative, repetitive
-ous make ajective continuous, dangerous, famous
-ful make ajective beautiful, peaceful, careful
-less make ajective endless, homeless, careless, thoughtless
-able make ajective drinkable, countable, avoidable,
un- make negative ajective unfortunate, uncomfortable, unjust
im-/in-/ir-/il- make negative ajective immature, impatient, improbable, inconvenient, irreplaceable, illegal
non- make negative ajective non-fiction, non-political, non-neutral
dis- make negative ajective disloyal, dissimilar, dishonest
Aqua water Aquamarine
Arbor tree Arboreal
Audio sound or hearing Audible
Bell war Bellicism
Dict say Dictation
Geo earth Geography
Graph write Graphics
Hydra water Hydrofoil
Man hand Manual
Min small Minimal
Nov new Novice
Path feeling or suffering Pathetic and Apathy
Sol sun Solar
Therm heat Thermometer
Vac empty Vacuum
Vent opening to let air in Ventilate
Vit life Vitamin
Acri bitter Acrimony
Carn flesh Carnivorous
Corp body Corporal punishment
Deca ten Decade
Erg work Energy
Gen birth Genesis
Lum light Luminary
Sen old Senior
Tele far Telephone
Vor eat greedily Devour
Act to move or do Action, activity and transaction
Ambul move or walk Amble, ambulant, ambulate
Auto self or same Autocrat, automatic
Cardio heart Cardiovascular, cardiology
Cede go Exceed, recede, accessible
Counter against or opposite Counteract, counterpoint and counterargument
Demo people Democracy, democrat and demographic
Derma skin Dermatology, epidermis
Equi equal Equity, equilateral and equidistant
Ex out or away Exit, extract and explosion
Extra outside Extraordinary, extraterrestrial
Hypno sleep Hypnosis, hypnotic
In and im not Impossible and innocent
Intra within or into Intrapersonal, intramural and intravenous
Ject to throw Reject, eject and inject
Mal bad Malignant, malfunction and malice
Mangi big or great Magnificent, magnify
Multi many Multiple, multifaceted and multilingual
Omni all Omnipotent, omnipresent and omnivore
Poly many Polygamous, polychrome and polytheist
Script write Manuscript, postscript
Sect cut Intersect, dissect and section
Semi half Semicircle and semifinalist
Un not Unfinished, uncooked and unreadable
Vis, vid see Envision, evident
a, an not, without atheist, anarchy, anonymous apathy, aphasia, anemia, atypical, anesthesia
ab away, down, from, off absent, abduction, aberrant, abstemious, abnormal, abstract, absorb
acro high, tip, top acrobat, acrophobia, acronym, acromegaly, acropolis
act do, move action, react, transaction, proactive, activity, activation, deactivate
ad to, toward admit, addition, advertisement, adherent, admonish, address, adhesive, adept, adjust
alt high altitude, altimeter, alto, contralto, altocumulus, exalt
ambul to walk ambulatory, amble, ambulance, somnambulist, perambulate, preamble
anima soul, life animation, inanimate, animal, anime, equanimity, animism, animus
ante before anteroom, antebellum, antedate antecedent, antediluvian
anti, ant against, opposite antisocial, antiseptic, antithesis, antibody, antichrist, antinomies, antifreeze, antipathy, antigen, antibiotic, antidote, antifungal, antidepressant
arm weapon army, armament, disarm, rearm, armistice, armor, armory, arms
audi to hear audience, auditory, audible, auditorium, audiovisual, audition, audiobook
auto self automobile, automatic, autograph, autonomous, autoimmune, autopilot, autobiography
be thoroughly bedecked, besmirch, besprinkled, begrudge, begrime, belie, bemoan
bell war belligerent, antebellum, bellicose, rebel
bene good, well benefactor, beneficial, benevolent, benediction, beneficiary, benefit
bi two bicycle, bifocals, biceps, billion, binary, bivalve, bimonthly, bigamy, bimetal, biathlete, bicarbonate
bio life, living biology, biography, biodiversity, bioavailability, bioflavonoid, biofuel, biohazard, biomass, biorhythm 
cede, ceed, cess to go, to yield succeed, proceed, precede, recede, secession, exceed, succession, excess 
chron time chronology, chronic, chronicle, chronometer, anachronism
circum around circumnavigate, circumflex, circumstance, circumcision, circumference, circumorbital, circumlocution, circumvent, circumscribe, circulatory
clud, clus claus to close include, exclude, clause, claustrophobia, enclose, exclusive, reclusive, conclude, preclude
con, com with, together convene, compress, contemporary, converge, compact, confluence, concatenate, conjoin, combine, convert, compatible, consequence, contract
contra, counter against, opposite contradict, counteract, contravene, contrary, counterspy, contrapuntal, contraband, contraception, contrast, controversy, counterfeit, counterclaim, counterargument, counterclaim, counterpoint, counterrevolution
cred to believe credo, credible, credence, credit, credential, credulity, incredulous, creed, incredible
commun to share commune, community, communism, communicable, communication, commonality, incommunicado
cycl circle, wheel bicycle, cyclical, cycle, encliclical, motorcycle, tricycle, cyclone
de from, down, away detach, deploy, derange, deodorize, devoid, deflate, degenerate, deice, descend, derail, depress, depart, decompose, destruction
dei, div God, god divinity, divine, deity, divination, deify, deism
demo people democracy, demagogue, epidemic, demographic, endemic
dia through, across, between diameter, diagonal, dialogue, dialect, dialectic, diagnosis, diachronic, diagram, diaphragm, dialysis, diarrhea
dict speak predict, verdict, malediction, dictionary, dictate, dictum, diction, indict, contradict 
dis, dys, dif away, not, negative dismiss, differ, disallow, disperse, dissuade, disconnect, dysfunction, disproportion, disrespect, distemper, distaste, disarray, dyslexia
duc, duct to lead, pull produce, abduct, product, transducer, viaduct, aqueduct, induct, deduct, reduce, induce
dyn, dyna power dynamic, dynamometer, heterodyne, dynamite, dynamo, dynasty
ecto outside, external ectomorph, ectoderm, ectoplasm, ectopic, ectothermal
endo inside, within endotoxin, endoscope, endogenous
equi equal equidistant, equilateral, equilibrium, equinox, equitable, equation, equator
e, ex out, away, from emit, expulsion, exhale, exit, express, exclusive, enervate, exceed, explosion, eject, exude
eu good, pleasant euphoria, euphemism, eustress, euphonic, eukaryote
exter, extra outside of external, extrinsic, exterior, extraordinary, extrabiblical, extracurricular, extrapolate, extraneous, exterminator, extract, extradite, extraterrestrial, extrasensory, extravagant, extreme
flu, flux flow effluence, influence, effluvium, fluctuate, confluence, reflux, influx
flect, flex to bend flexible, reflection, deflect, circumflex, inflection, reflex
graph, gram to write polygraph, grammar, biography, graphite, telegram, autograph, lithograph, historiography, graphic, electrocardiogram, monogram
hetero other heterodox, heterogeneous, heterosexual, heterodyne
homo same homogenized, homosexual, homonym, homophone
hyper over, above hyperactive, hypertensive, hyperbolic, hypersensitive, hyperventilate, hyperkinetic, hyperlink, hypertext, hypersonic, hypertrophy
hypo below, less than hypotension, hypodermic, hypoglycemia, hypoallergenic, hypothermia, hypothesis
in, im not inviolate, innocuous, intractable, innocent, impregnable, impossible, incapable, incoherent, impassible, impotent
infra beneath infrared, infrastructure, infrasonic
inter, intro between international, intercept, intermission, interoffice, internal, intermittent, introvert, introduce
intra within, into intranet, intracranial, intravenous, intramural, intramuscular, intraocular
jac, ject to throw reject, eject, project, trajectory, interject, dejected, inject, ejaculate
log, logo, loc. loq word, speech, speak monologue, dialogue, locution, colloquial, elocution, soliloquy, ventriloquist, apology, doxology, epilogue, logic, eulogy, loquacious
mal bad, badly malformation, maladjusted, dismal, malady, malcontent, malfeasance, maleficent, malevolent, malice, malaria, malfunction, malignant
mega great, million megaphone, megalomaniac, megabyte, megalopolis, acromegaly
meso middle mesomorph, mesoamerica, mesosphere
meta beyond, change metaphor, metamorphosis, metabolism, metahistorical, metainformation, metacognitive, metaphysics
meter measure perimeter, micrometer, ammeter, multimeter, altimeter, geometry, kilometer
micro small microscope, microprocessor, microfiche, micrometer, micrograph
mis bad, badly misinform, misinterpret, mispronounce, misnomer, mistake, misogynist, mistrial, misadventure, misanthrope, misread
mit, miss to send transmit, permit, missile, missionary, remit, admit, missive, mission
morph shape polymorphic, morpheme, amorphous, metamorphosis, morphology, morphing
multi many multitude, multipartite, multiply, multipurpose, multicolored, multimedia, multinational
neo new neologism, neonate, neoclassic, neophyte
non not nonferrous, nonabrasive, nondescript, nonfat, nonfiction, nonprofit, nonsense, nonentity
omni all omnipotent, omnivorous, omniscient, omnibus, omnirange, omnipresent
pan all, whole, general, completely pantheism, pandemic, panacea, panoply, pan-American, panchromatic, pandemonium, panorama
para beside paraprofessional, paramedic, paraphrase, parachute, paralegal, parallel, comparison
per through, intensive permit, perspire, perforate, persuade, perceive, perfect, permit, perform, pervasive
peri around periscope, perimeter, perigee, periodontal, pericope
phon sound telephone, phonics, phonograph, phonetic, homophone, microphone
phot light photograph, photosynthesis, photon
poly many polytheist, polygon, polygamy, polymorphous
port to carry porter, portable, report, transportation, deport, import, export
re back, again report, realign, retract, revise, regain, reflect, rename, restate, recombine, recalculate, redo
retro backwards retrorocket, retrospect, retrogression, retroactive
sanct holy sanctify, sanctuary, sanction, sanctimonious, sacrosanct
scrib, script to write inscription, prescribe, proscribe, manuscript, conscript, scribble, scribe
sect, sec cut intersect, transect, dissect, secant, section
semi half semifinal, semiconscious, semiannual, semimonthly, semicircle
spect to look inspect, spectator, circumspect, retrospect, prospect, spectacle
sub under, below submerge, submarine, substandard, subnormal, subvert, subdivision, submersible, submit
super, supra above superior, suprarenal, superscript, supernatural, supercede, superficial, superhero, superimpose
syn together synthesis, synchronous, syndicate, synergy, snyopsis, syncretism
tele distance, from afar television, telephone, telegraph, telemetry, telepathy
theo, the God theology, theist, polytheist, pantheism, atheist, monotheist, theophany
therm, thermo heat thermal, thermometer, thermocouple, thermodynamic, thermoelectric
tract to drag, draw attract, tractor, traction, extract, retract, protract, detract, subtract, contract, intractable
trans across transoceanic, transmit, transport, transducer, transit, intransitive
un not uncooked, unharmed, unintended, unhappy, unenlightened, unremarkable
veh, vect, vey to carry vector, vehicle, convection, vehement, convey, conveyance, conveyor
vert, vers to turn convert, revert, advertise, versatile, vertigo, invert, reversion, extravert, introvert
ven, vent to come convention, prevent, intervention, convent, Advent, invent, inventory
verm worm vermin, vermicelli, vermiculite, vermicide, vermiform, vermilion
vita life vital, vitality, vitamins, revitalize
vol to will benevolent, volition, voluntary, malevolent
mono, uni one monopoly, monotype, monologue, mononucleosis, monorail, monotheist, unilateral, universal, unity, unanimous, uniform
bi, di two divide, diverge, diglycerides, bifurcate, biweekly, bivalve, biannual, billion
tri three triangle, trinity, trilateral, triumvirate, tribune, trilogy, tricycle, trillion
quat, quad four quadrangle, quadruplets, quaternary, quarter, quadrillion
quint, penta five quintet, quintuplets, pentagon, pentane, pentameter, quintillion
hex, ses, sex six hexagon, hexameter, sestet, sextuplets, sextillion
sept seven septet, septennial, septillion, September
oct eight octopus, octagon, octogenarian, octave, octillion, October
non nine nonagon, nonagenarian, nonillion
dec ten decimal, decade, decalogue, decimate, decillion, December
cent hundred centennial, century, centipede, centillion
mill, kilo thousand (10^3) millennium, kilobyte, kiloton
mega million (10^6) megabyte, megaton, megaflop, megawatt
giga billion (10^9) gigabyte, gigaflop, gigahertz, gigawatt
tera trillion (10^12) terabyte, teraflop, terawatt
peta quadrillion (10^15) petabyte
exa quintillion (10^18) exabyte
zetta sextillion (10^21) zettabyte
yotta septilion (10^24) yottabyte
milli thousandth (10^-3) millisecond, milligram, millivolt, milliwatt, millimeter, millipede
micro millionth (10^-6) microgram, microvolt, microwave, microsecond
nano billionth (10^-9) nanosecond, nanobucks, nanofarad, nanometer, nanomachine, nanotube, nanotechnology, nanogram, nanoscale
pico trillionth (10^-12) picofarad, picocurie, picogram, picomole, picosecond
femto quadrillionth (10^-15) femtosecond
atto quintillionth (10^-18) attosecond, attometer
zepto sextillionth (10^-21) zeptosecond
yocto septillionth (10^-24) yoctosecond
able, ible able to be, capable of being pourable, drinkable, readable, washable, curable, visible, flexible, collectible
ance, ancy state of, process of performance, reliance, defiance, radiance, acceptance, ascendancy, discrepancy, infancy
ator one who does [the verb] terminator, culminator, agitator, instigator, generator, incubator, accelerator, invigorator, elevator
dom condition, office, state kingdom, freedom, wisdom, sheikdom, fiefdom, sheikdom
ee one who receives payee, mortgagee, employee, appointee, abductee, examinee, referee, refugee
er, or one who does [the verb] driver, hiker, reader, manager, polisher, speaker, counselor, author, creator, director, sculptor
ful filled with frightful, delightful, wonderful, cupful, wakeful, bashful, bountiful, beautiful, cheerful, colorful, dreadful, fateful
ify to make into purify, deify, simplify, clarify, petrify, reify, exemplify, pacify
ification process of making into purification, deification, simplifiction, clarification, petrification
ish the nature of, resembling Cornish, Irish, bookish, freakish, foolish, boorish, selfish, sluggish, priggish
ism doctrine, system, characteristic quality capitalism, heroism, optimism, skepticism, realism, patriotism, communism, idealism, conservatism
ist one who performs; an adherent of an ism tympanist, cellist, idealist, communist, realist, moralist, pharamacist, pragmatist
ize to make into rationalize, normalize, realize, capitalize, sterilize, dramatize, utilize, colorize
ization the process of making into rationalization, normalization, realization, capitalization, dramatization
less without, lacking loveless, fearless, worthless, nameless, baseless, bottomless, effortless, friendless, noiseless, harmless
agon to struggle agony, protagonist, antagonist, agony, agonize,
alg pain neuralgia, analgesic, nostalgic,
alter other alternative, alternator, alteration, altercation,  alternate,
am friend amiable, amorous, amity, enamored, paramour, amicable
ambi both ambidextrous, ambivalent, ambiguous, ambient
anim alive animated, animal, inanimate, animator, anime, animation, reanimate
anthrop mankind anthropology, anthropomorphic,  philanthrophy, misanthranthropology, anthropomorphic,  philanthrophy, misanthropy
eu good, well euphoria, eulogy, euphemism, eugenics, eucalyptus, eukaryote, eurythmics, euthanasia
fore before, front forecast, forefather, foretaste, forehead, foreman, foreboding, forecastle, forearm, forebear, foreclose, foredoom, forego, forefoot, foreground, forehand, foreknowledge, foremost, foreordain, forerunner, foresee, foreshoren, foretell
ortho straight orthodontics, orthodox, orthopedic, orthoscopic, orthostatic
post after postscript, postconsumer, postdoctoral, posterior, postimpact, postfeminism, postgraduate, posthumous, postimpressionism, postlude, postmodernism, postpone, postproduction
pre before, in front of prefix, predict, prelude, predetermined, preamplifier, predestination, prebiotic, preclude, predate, predisposed, preempt, preference, prefigure, prefrontal, preheat, prehistory, presell, presumptuous, prevent, previous, pretext, pretentious, pretend
pro forward propel, proceed, produce, promote, project, proclaim, procession, profess, proffer, professor, proficient, profile, profound, profuse, progenitor, progress, prolapse, prolegomenon, prolific, prologue, prolong, pronation, pronounce
proto first, earliest prototype, protoplasm, protohistory, protocol, protogalaxy, proton, prototypical, protozoa
quasi approximately, resembling, to some degree quasiperiodical, quasiparticle, quasi-governmental, quasi-scientific, quasi-judicial, quasi-stellar, quasi-public
ultra beyond, extremely ultraviolet, ultrasonic, ultramarine, ultrafine, ultrasensitive, ultrawide, ultrapure, ultraquiet
under beneath, below, too little undercoat, underwear, underestimate, underbid, underexpose, undercut, underclassmen, undernourished
re again or back restructure, revisit, reappear, rebuild, refinance
Created by: kangwoo on 2012-05-15



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