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AP Hum Geo Ch12

QuestionAnswer
Industrial Revolution The term applied to the social and economic changes in agriculture, commerce, and manufacturing that resulted from technological innovations and specialization in late-eighteenth-century Europe.
location theory A logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of an economic activity and the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated. The agricultural location theory contained in the von ThÜnen model is a leading example.
variable costs Costs that change directly with the amount of production (e.g. energy supply and labor costs).
friction of distance The increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance.
distance decay Measurement of the physical space between two places.
least cost theory Model developed by Alfred Weber according to which the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three critical expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration.
agglomeration A process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. The term often refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity because they share skilled-labor pools and technological and financial amenities.
deglomeration The process of industrial deconcentration in response to technological advances and/or increasing costs due to congestion and competition.
locational interdependence Theory developed by economist Harold Hotelling that suggests competitors, in trying to maximize sales, will seek to constrain each other’s territory as much as possible which will therefore lead them to locate adjacent to one another in the middle of thei
primary industrial regions Western and Central Europe; Eastern North America; Russia and Ukraine; and Eastern Asia, each of which consists of one or more core areas of industrial development with subsidiary clusters.
break-of-bulk point A location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from one carrier to another. In a port, the cargoes of oceangoing ships are unloaded and put on trains, trucks, or perhaps smaller riverboats for inland distribution.
Fordist A highly organized and specialized system for organizing industrial production and labor. Named after automobile producer Henry Ford, Fordist production features assembly-line production of standardized components for mass consumption.
post-Fordist World economic system characterized by a more flexible set of production practices in which goods are not mass-produced; instead, production has been accelerated and dispersed around the globe by multinational companies that shift production, outsourcing
just-in-time delivery Method of inventory management made possible by efficient transportation and communication systems, whereby companies keep on hand just what they need for near-term production, planning that what they need for longer-term production will arrive when neede
global division of labor Phenomenon whereby corporations and others can draw from labor markets around the world, made possible by the compression of time and space through innovation in communication and transportation systems.
intermodal connections Places where two or more modes of transportation meet (including air, road, rail, barge, and ship).
deindustrialization Process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment.
outsource With reference to production, to turn over in part or in total to a third party.
offshore With reference to production, to outsource to a third party located outside of the country.
Sunbelt The South and Southwest regions of the United States.
Technopole Centers or nodes of high-technology research and activity around which a high-technology corridor is sometimes established
Created by: KT's AP HG on 2012-05-13



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