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AP Hum Geo Ch7

QuestionAnswer
religion Defined by geographers Robert Stoddard and Carolyn Prorak in the book Geography in America as “a system of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities.”
secularism The idea that ethical and moral standards should be formulated and adhered to for life on Earth, not to accommodate the prescriptions of a deity and promises of a comfortable afterlife. A secular state is the opposite of a theocracy.
monotheistic religion Belief system in which one supreme being is revered as creator and arbiter of all that exists in the universe.
polytheistic religion Belief system in which multiple deities are revered as creators and arbiters of all that exists in the universe.
animistic religion The belief that inanimate objects, such as hills, trees, rocks, rivers, and other elements of the natural landscape, possess souls and can help or hinder human efforts on Earth.
universalizing religion A belief system that espouses the idea that there is one true religion that is universal in scope. Adherents of universalizing religious systems often believe that their religion represents universal truths, and in some cases great effort is undertaken i
ethnic religion A religion that is particular to one, culturally distinct, group of people. Unlike universalizing religions, adherents of ethnic religions do not actively seek converts through evangelism or missionary work.
Hinduism One of the oldest religions in the modern world, dating back over 4000 years, and originating in the Indus River Valley of what is today part of Pakistan. Hinduism is unique among the world’s religions in that it does not have a single founder, a single t
caste system The strict social segregation of people—specifically in India’s Hindu society—on the basis of ancestry and occupation.
Buddhism Religion founded in the sixth century BCE and characterized by the belief that enlightenment would come through knowledge, especially self-knowledge; elimination of greed, craving, and desire; complete honesty; and never hurting another person or animal.
Shintoism Religion located in Japan and related to Buddhism. Shintoism focuses particularly on nature and ancestor worship.
Taoism Religion believed to have been founded by Lao-Tsu and based upon his book entitled “Tao-te-ching,” or “Book of the Way.” Lao-Tsu focused on the proper form of political rule and on the oneness of humanity and nature.
Feng Shui Literally “wind-water.” The Chinese art and science of placement and orientation of tombs, dwellings, buildings, and cities. Structures and objects are positioned in an effort to channel flows of sheng-chi (“life-breath”) in favorable ways.
Confucianism A philosophy of ethics, education, and public service based on the writings of Confucius and traditionally thought of as one of the core elements of Chinese culture.
Judaism Religion with its roots in the teachings of Abraham (from Ur), who is credited with uniting his people to worship only one god. According to Jewish teaching, Abraham and God have a covenant in which the Jews agree to worship only one God, and God agrees
diaspora From the Greek “to disperse,” a term describing forceful or voluntary dispersal of a people from their homeland to a new place. Originally denoting the dispersal of Jews, it is increasingly applied to other population dispersals, such as the involuntary
Zionism The movement to unite the Jewish people of the diaspora and to establish a national homeland for them in the promised land.
Christianity Religion based on the teachings of Jesus. According to Christian teaching, Jesus is the son of God, place on Earth to teach people how to live according to God’s plan.
Eastern Orthodox Church One of three major branches of Christianity, the Eastern Orthodox Church, together with the Roman Catholic Church, a second of the three major branches of Christianity, arose out of the division of the Roman Empire by Emperor Diocletian into four governme
Roman Catholic Church One of three major branches of Christianity, the Roman Catholic Church, together with the Eastern Orthodox Church, a second of the three major branches of Christianity, arose out of the division of the Roman Empire by Emperor Diocletian into four governme
Protestant One of three major branches of Christianity (together with the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church). Following the widespread societal changes in Europe starting in the 1300s CE, many adherents to the Roman Catholic Church began to ques
Islam The youngest of the major world religions, Islam is based on the teaching of Muhammad, born in Mecca in 571 CE. According to Islamic teaching, Muhammad received the truth directly from Allah in a series of revelations during which Muhammad spoke the vers
Sunnis Adherents to the largest branch of Islam, called the orthodox or traditionalist. They believe in the effectiveness of family and community in the solution of life’s problems, and they differ from the Shiites in accepting the traditions (sunna) of Muhamma
Shi’ite Adherents of one of the two main divisions of Islam. Also known as Shiahs, the Shiites represent the Persian (Iranian) variation of Islam and believe in the infallibility and divine right to authority of the Imams, descendants of Ali.
indigenous religions Belief systems and philosophies practiced and traditionally passed from generation to generation among peoples within an indigenous tribe or group.
Shamanism Community faith in traditional societies in which people follow their shaman—a religious leader, teacher, healer, and visionary. At times, an especially strong shaman might attract a regional following. However, most shamans remain local figures.
secularism The idea that ethical and moral standards should be formulated and adhered to for life on Earth, not to accommodate the prescriptions of a deity and promises of a comfortable afterlife. A secular state is the opposite of a theocracy.
pilgrimage Voluntary travel by an adherent to a sacred site to pay respects or participate in a ritual at the site.
sacred site Place or space people infuse with religious meaning.
minarets Tower attached to a Muslim mosque, having one or more projecting balconies from which a crier calls Muslims to prayer.
hajj The Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, the birthplace of Muhammad.
interfaith boundaries Boundaries between the world’s major faiths.
intrafaith boundaries Boundaries within a single major faith.
ethnic cleansing The systematic killing or extermination of an entire people or nation.
activity space The space within which daily activity occurs.
religious fundamentalism Religious movement whose objectives are to return to the foundations of the faith and to influence state policy.
religious extremism Religious fundamentalism carried to the point of violence.
shari’a laws The system of Islamic law, sometimes called Qu’ranic law. Unlike most Western systems of law that are based on legal precedence, Sharia is based on varying degrees of interpretation of the Qu’ran.
jihad A doctrine within Islam. Commonly translated as “Holy War,” Jihad represents either a personal or collective struggle on the part of Muslims to live up to the religious standards set by the Qu’ran.
Created by: KT's AP HG on 2012-05-13



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