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2012 Spring Final

2012 Spring Geography Fninal

QuestionAnswer
apartheid A policy of complete separation of the races, instituted by the white minority government of South Africa in 1948.
stateless society A group of people who govern themselves according to family lineage
human resources resources that are developed by education
Western Wall For Jews, the holiest site in Jerusalem, the only remaining portion of the Second Temple, built in 538 B.C. and destroyed in A.D. 70 by the Romans.
Dome of the Rock Shrine in Jerusalem, located on the Temple Mount, which houses the spot where Muslims believe Muhammad rose into Heaven and where Jews believe Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac to God.
Kashmir Region of northern India and Pakistan over which several destructive wars have been fought.
Mecca The holiest city of Islam, located in Saudi Arabia, where people make pilgrimages to fulfill Islamic religious duty.
Strategic commodity A resource so valuable, nations would go to war over it
One commodity country Countries rely on one principal export for the majority of the GDP (earnings).
microcredit A small loan available to poor entrepreneurs, to help small businesses grow and raise living standards.
outsourcing Large companies send non-vital jobs to other countries
privatization The selling of government businesses to private individuals
Feudalism A political system prevailing in Europe from about the 9th to the 15th centuries in which a king allowed nobles the use of his land in exchange for their military service and their protection of the land.
Republic A government whose citizens elect representatives
Welfare state A government that ensures the economic and social well being of citizens
Constitutional Monarchy A government in which the ruler's powers are limited by a contitution and the laws of a nation.
Anti-Semitism having a prejudice against the Jews
brain drain The educated population of a country goes to a new country in search of jobs
collective farm An enormous farm in the Soviet Union on which a large team of laborers were gathered to work together during Joseph Stalin's reign.
economic tiger A country with a rapidly growing economy due to cheap labor, high technology and aggressive exports.
command economy The government controls all aspects of the economy.
market economy Economy is based on supply and demand.
traditional economy There is no money system. The economy is based on trading.
industrialization Economy is focused on growth of technology and urbanization.
subsistence agriculture A family produces only enough food for them to live on.
Ganges River Sacred to Hindus, but most polluted in the world
Nelson Mandela One of the leaders of the African National Congress who led a struggle to end apartheid and was elected president in 1994 in the first all-race election in South Africa
Boxer Rebellion an uprising in China in 1900, spurred by angry Chinese militants, or Boxers, over foreign control; several hundred Europeans, Christians, and chinese died.
The Great Wall of China built to protect norther China and Mongolia from invaders. Hundreds of peasants were used a forced labor on its production. Stretches from the Yellow Sea in the east to the Gobi desert in the west. Twists and turns for thousands of miles.
Buddhism a religion that originated in India about 500 B.C. and spread to China, where it grew into a major religion by A.D. 400.
Confucianism a movement based on the teachings of Confucius, a Chinese philosopher who lived about 500 B.C.; he stressed the importance od education in an ordered society in which one respects one's elders and obeys the government.
Taoism a philosophy based on the teachings of Lao-Tzu, who lived in China in the 6th century B.C. and believed in preserving and restoring harmony in the individual, with nature, and in the universe, with little interference from the government.
Mao Zedong the leader of the Communists in China who defeated the Nationalists in 1949; he died in 1976
Genghis Khan united the Mongol clans and led them in conquering much of Asia.
illiteracy lacking the ability to read and write
Jerusalem holy city to Judaism, Islam and Christianity
assimilation The result of a minority group giving up its culture and adopting the culture of the majority
Stolen Generation Aboriginal children were taken and placed with white Australian families
Land Rights Act 1976 This gave Aboriginal people the right to claim land in the Northern Territory
Mabo case A legal case in which the concept of Terra Nullius was overturned
AIDS This disease destroys the immune system of the victims
cholera Severe flooding can cause an outbreak of this disease if the water becomes contaminated
malaria A disease caused by a virus carried by mosquitoes.
tuberculosis A respiratory infection spread by human contact
entrepreneur People who start and build a business
caste system In the Aryan system of social classes in India and one of the conrnerstones of Hinduism in which each person is born into a caste and can only move into a different caste through reincarnation.
push factors Reasons why people leave an area to move to another place
theocratic This type of government is based on religious leaders also being our political leaders
escarpment A steep slope with a nearly flat plateau on top
oasis Supports vegetation and wildlife in deserts
silt Loose sedimentary material containing very small rock particles, formed by river deposits and very fertile.
aquifier Underground layer of rock that stores water
Muhammad The founder of Islam
Siddhartha Gautama The founder of Buddhism
Mao Zedong Chinese Communist dictator responsible for more than 30 million deaths; became dictator of China in 1949 when the Communist party overtook the government.
Japan "Land of the Rising Sun"
Himalayan Mountains "Rooftop of the World"
Egypt "Gift of the Nile"
Gandhi's method of resistance A nonviolent resistance against British rule of India.
Marco Polo led the resistance against apartheid in South Africa.
Ganges River River in South Asia; an important water resources flowing more than 1500 miles from its source in a Himalayan glacier to the Bay of Bengal; a sacred river in Hinduism.
Great Wall of China -Was built to protect China from invaders along their northern border. -Only man-made structure on Earth visible from the Moon.
Subsistence farming Farming in which a family produces only the food, clothing, and shelter they themselves need.
Oasis Place where water from an aquifer has reached the surface; supports vegetation and wildlife.
assimilation A process whereby a minority group gradually gives up its own culture and adopts the culture of a majority group.
Theocratic Form of government in which religious leaders control the government, relying on religious law and constitution with religious scholars.
Republic A government in which citizens elect representatives to rule on their behalf.
Cash crop Crop grown for direct sale, and not for use in a region such as coffee, tea and sugar in Africa.
Archipelago Set of closely grouped islands.
Created by: Thibs