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Cells & Tissues

Test 1 Material (Part 2 of 2)

list all multicellular exocrine glands involving compound structures of the ducts compound tubular, compound alveolar, and compound tubularalveolar
what is an example of an unicellular exocrine gland a goblet cell
how are multicellular exocrine glands classified based on their structure of ducts and on their secretory portion
what are (3) types of secretion mucous acinus, serous acinus, and mixed acinus
which type of secretion are thin & watery, and have small central lumen serous acinus
which type of secretion have large central lumen, lots of carbohydrates, and are generally viscerous mucous acinus
how are multicellular exocrine glands classified with regards to their structure of their glands simple (branched & coiled) & compound
how are multicellular exocrine glands classified with regards to their shape of secretory portion tubular, alveolar, and tubularalveolar
list all the multicellular exocrine glands involving simple type structral ducts simple tubular, simple branched tubular, simple coiled tubular, simple alveolar, and simple branched alveolar
in what ways can secretion occur holocrine, apocrine, and merocrine
what type of secretion occurs when a cell dies to release its contents (generally has a high mitotic rate) holocrine
what type of secretion occurs when a portion of the cell pinches off causing a loss of some cytoplasm and cell membrane apocrine
which type of secretion is the most common and releases by exocytosis from the surface of the cell merocrine
what are cell junctions a specalized attachment between adjacent cells
cell junctions are modifications of what membrane plasma membrane
cell junctions act as what for adjacent cells anchors
list all the type of cell junctions tight junctions, zonula adhearensm desmosomes, hemidesmosomes, and gap junctions
what type of junction are water tight junctions tight junctions
what do tight junctions prevent from passing between the cells water soluble molecules
what fuzed tight junctions together proteins
how can tight junctions be disrupted lack of calcium
zonula adherens use proteins also, what anchors these proteins actin microfilliments
what do hemidesmosomes attach together the cell and the basel membrane
what type of cell junction are disc shaped and use cytoplasmic intermediate filliments for anchors desmosomes
what cell junction is near the bottom layer between the cell gap junction
do gap junctions hold cells together no
what cell junction is not considered part of the terminal bar gap junction
what do gap junctions allow to pass ions and molecules (size and charge matter)
where are gap junctions important in cardiac and smooth muscles cells, allowing muliply cells to act as one unit
what is the main purposes of microvilli, sterocillia, and cillia increase surface area and move substances
microvilli are normally how long 1 micrometer
what are microvill covered with glycocalyx proteins
are microvilli motie or non-motile non motile
described what sterocillia are really long microvilli (misnamed)
what is the common name for cillia and flagella axoneme
are cillia and flagella motie or non-motile motile
do cillia or flagella move the cell around flagella
what is the motor protein for cillia axonemal dynein
what do cillia use for energy ATP
what do axoneme (flagella & cillia) look in a cross section contain 9 doublets of microtubles surrounding 2 single microtubules (9+2)
what do axoneme (flagella & cillia) look in a cross section in the base 9 triplets of microtublues with no central microtubules (9+0)
decribed the a cell cycle it's the orderly progression of events in the ife of a cell
what are the two divisons of cell divisions interphase and mitosis
what are the phases of a cell G1, S, G2, M
what is the first phase of in a cell cycle G1 (gap 1)
what occurs during G1 the cell carries out normal functions, synthesis of proteins, grows
how long does G1 phase last it can last hours to years (variable)
what does the cell do before going into S phase of the cell cycle enters a checkpoint to ensure the enviornment is right and DNA is intact
what is the second phase of a cell cycle synthesis phase
what occurs during S phase synthesis of DNA
how long does S phase last 6-8 hours
what is the third phase in a cell cycle G2 (gap 2)
how long does G2 phase last 3-6 hours
what is synthesized during G2 tublin for microtubulars
what is the purpose of a checkpoint at the end of G2 determines if DNA is replicated correctly and ready for mitosis
what is the fourth phase of a cell cycle mitosis
how long does mitosis last 1-2 hours
what cycle keeps a cell staying in G1 phase G0 phase
what are the phases of mitosis prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
what breaks down during prophase the nuclear envelope
prophase causes chromosomes to do what condense
what is the second phase of mitosis metaphase
where do chromosomes align during metaphase midline / equator of cell
chromosomes seperate into sister chromatids at what phase of mitosis metaphase
what phase is anaphase in mitosis third phase
what happens to the chromosomes during anaphase chromosomes move toward opposite poles
what is the final stage of mitosis telophase
what feature is regenerated during telophase nuclear envelope
what happens to chromosomes chromosomes disperse
what is the division of cytoplasm cytokinesis
what does apoptosis mean programed cell death
where is apoptosis commonly seen during embroyonic development
give an example of apoptosis during development development of hands and feet
in adult tissue what does apoptosis help balance cell division
cells are removed by apoptosis in adults because they are what damaged or ineffective
does apoptosis cause an inflammatory response no
external regulation of a cell allows specific receptors to bind to what the cell surface
external regulation also send cytoplasmic signals to where cellular componets
internal regulation involves what cyclins and maturation promoting factor (MPF)
when does the concentration of cyclins increase during interphase
when does the concentration of MPF increase during entry into mitosis
Created by: bawasinger