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Athletic Training.

Final Exam

Three Main Classifications of Injury: acute, chronic, catastrophic
acute injury- rapid onset, resulting from traumatic event
chronic injury- slow, insidious onset, implying gradual development of structural damage
catastrophic injury- involving damage to brain and/or spinal cord that presents a potentially life threatening situation or possibility of permanent disability
R I C E Rest Ice Compression Elevation
sprains- injuries to ligaments
strains- njuries to muscles, tendons, or junction between the two
contusions- bruising
fractures- a break or crack in bone
What are the types of compression? circumferential, collateral, and focal
Circumferential compression- even compression everywhere
Collateral compression- compression on only two sides
Focal compression- direct pressure
Temperature for cold modalities 32-65 degrees F
Temperature for heat modalities 104-113 degrees F
What are the four ways heat transfers? conduction, convection, radiation, and evaporation
conduction- direct contact
convection- circulation between surface and moving medium
radiation- (heat lamps) penetration by beams (electromagnetic waves)
evaporation heat escaping liquid-gas transfer
Effects of Cold Application- vasoconstriction, decreased cell metabolism, decreased production of cell waste, reduction in inflammation, decreased pain, decreased muscle spasm
types of superficial heat- infared lamps, moist heat packs, paraffin bath, warm whirlpool
deep heat- diathermy
when to use cold? acute stage of inflammation, before ROM, after physical activity
when to use heat? control of inflammation in sub acute or chronic stages, encourage tissue healing, reduce edema
therapeutic ultrasound electricity passes through a crystal producing acoustical sound waves
transmission of ultrasound- needs medium for travel (gel or water)
frequencies of ultrasound are.. 1 MHz- 5 cm deep and 3 MHz -2 cm deep
Coupling techniques- direct, water immersion, and bladder method
uses for E-stim: pain management, muscle re-education, and reduces swelling
types of E-stim currents: direct (galvinic), alternating (premod, inferential)
direct galvinic e-stim current= muscle education and muscle pumping
alternating premod inferential current= pain management
frequencies for e-stim 1-10 MHz = opiate release, 30-60 MHz = muscle strengthening, 80 -150 pain management
HOPS History, Observation, Palpation, Special Tests
ACL tear MOI (mechanism of injury) internal rotation, valgus load, usually hear single pop
ACL special tests- Lachmann and anterior drawer
treatment of ACL- acute= RICE, knee immobilizer, crutches followed by referral to Doc for surgery
PCL tear MOI fall on bent knee
PCL special tests posterior sag, posterior drawer
treatment of PCL- same as ACL
knee dislocation- 3-4 ligaments involved (ACL, PCL, MCL, LCL) activate EMS
patella dislocation/subluxation- 2 pops, extend knee to relocate
special tests for sublux- apprehension in sliding patella to side
how to treat sublux- relocate, MRI, build quad strength, stability of joint,
osgood schlatter calcium deposits especially during growth spurts cause is overuse treatment is control inflammation and rest
Meniscus MOI twisting motion, contusion, violent trauma, overuse
special tests for Meniscus McMurray's and Appley's
treatment for meniscus- RICE, refer surgery, if removed (4-6 wk) if repaired (6-8wk)
knee tendon injuries are patella tendonitis (jumper's knee) and IT band tendonitis (runners knee)
treatment for knee tendon injuries heat pre activity, ice post activity, brace
3 choices for ACL repair- 1) BPB- bone patella bone central 1/3 tendon is cut out sewn together and used as graft 2) hamstring- smaller incision, for smaller patients (not above 210lbs) 3) allograph (use cadaver)
what is the pop from that you hear with ACL injury? usually from femoral condyle bumping tibial plateau
Appley's compression/distension test + compression with - distension = + test for meniscus
quick test for patella fracture straight leg raise
what are the steps for ankle taping? pre-wrap, anchors (2 on top, 1 on base), alternate 3 stirrups and 3 horse shoes, heel lock (1 on each side), Figure 8, cover-up
Created by: sbush0804