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BHSWG- concepts #7

BHSWG- Agriculture & Industry

QuestionAnswer
producing just enough food for a family or a village to survive SUBSISTENCE FARMING
method in which farmers move every few years to find better soil SHIFTING AGRICULTURE
farming carried on at permanent settlements SEDENTARY FARMING
production of food surplus; farming organized as a business which includes a large area of land, advanced technology, a limited number of workers, and a large harvest of crops COMMERCIAL FARMING
farm crop grown to be sold or traded rather than used by the farm family CASH CROP
a land management technique that helps protect farmland CONSERVATION FARMING
term meaning suitable for growing crops ARABLE
the raising of livestock; usually by nomadic peoples (ex. Bedouins) PASTORALISM
to adapt plants and animals from the wild to make them useful to people DOMESTICATE
program begun in the 1960s to produce higher-yielding, more productive strains of wheat, rice, and other food crops (primarily in Asia) GREEN REVOLUTION
plant and animal waste used especially as a source of fuel BIOMASS
a term for farms jointly operated by multiple households in which they usually sharing expenses and profits; in North Korea, the communist government controls every aspect of these farms. COOPERATIVE FARMS
traditional farming method in which all trees and plants in one area are cut and burned to add nutrients to the soil SLASH & BURN
chemical used to kill insects, rodents, and other pests PESTICIDE
replanting young trees or seeds on lands where trees have been cut or destroyed REFORESTATION
farming practices diffused across the earth from these original places AGRICULTURAL HEARTHS
the channeling of water to fields; absolutely necessary in areas with little precipitation; started by ancient civilizations IRRIGATION
economic system where private companies, under a government charter, traded goods in a foreign land (or colony) in return for precious metals to enrich the mother country (ex. developed by the British) MERCANTILISM
changing crops on a regular basis to control and preserve the soil's nutrients CROP ROTATION
the initial transition from hunting and gathering to settled agriculture in prehistory; man learned how to domesticate plants and animals, settled in one area and learned to successfully cultivate crops NEOLITHIC OR AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION
a large farm that specializes in one or two crops (like cotton, sugar, or tobacco), found in the Americas, Africa, & Asia, and once depended on slave labor PLANTATION FARMING
a social system where men hold the power in the family, economy, & government PATRIARCHAL SYSTEM
changes that resulted from the Agricultural Revolution were ___________ RELIABLE FOOD SOURCES, RAPID INCREASE IN POPULATION, JOB SPECIALIZATION, WIDENING OF GENDER DIFFERENCES
during the 15th/16th centuries when goods, slaves, crops were sent across the Atlantic between Europe, Africa, and the New World; new foods were introduced to areas during this time COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE
the negative impacts of clearing land for agriculture include _______ EROSION, CHANGES IN ORGANIC CONTENT OF SOIL, DEPLETION OF NATURAL VEGETATION, PRESENCE OF CHEMICALS IN SOIL & GROUND WATER
process by which economic activities on earth's surface evolved from producing basic primary goods to using factories for mass production INDUSTRIALIZATION
began in England in the 18th century; factories developed where machines were powered to mass produce goods; this revolution attracted large numbers of people to move to cities in search of better jobs INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
improving the standard of living and economic health for people in a specific area through the expansion of education, technology, and industry ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
non-renewable resources (coal, oil, natural gas) that are used as energy sources; the burning of these resources adds pollutants to the environment and contributes to climate change FOSSIL FUELS
part of the economy that takes raw materials from the natural environment to sell PRIMARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
part of the economy that takes raw materials and produces a manufactured good to be sold SECONDARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
part of the economy that involves services provided rather than goods; usually requires some kind of education & training (ex. teacher, lawyer, doctor) TERTIARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
part of the economy that focuses on information management, research, and development (also requires training & education) QUATERNARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
trade amongst countries within a particular region TRADING BLOCS
trade agreement between USA, Canada, Mexico which has opened up the borders for trade in North America NAFTA
"Association of SE Asian Nations"- political and economic partnership of 10 S.E. Asian nations to promote economic growth, social progress, cultural development, peace and stability A.S.E.A.N.
countries that have experienced industrialization, have all four economic activities, and make up the world's wealthiest countries MORE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
countries whose economies are heavily dependent upon agriculture, have a predominantly rural population, low literacy rates & life expectancies, and the world's poorest economies LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
refers to the increasing expansion of culture, people, and economic activity on a global scale; the global distribution goods and services, through reduction of barriers to international trade GLOBALIZATION
social and economic idea that encourages the purchase of goods and services in ever-greater amounts (practiced by the most developed countries in the world like the USA) CONSUMERISM
the value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country during a year GDP
Created by: BHSWG