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Geography Terms

Chapter 5

QuestionAnswer
Berlin Conference meeting convened by German chancellor Bismark in 1884-85 to divide Africa among European colonial powers.
bush fallow modification of shifting cultivation where crops are rotated around a village and fallow periods are shortened.
common market market in which internal restrictions on the movement of capital, labor, and enterprise are also removed from the basic framework of a customs union.
Desertification process by which arid and semiarid lands become degraded and less productive, leading to more desertlike conditions
Domestification adaption of wild plants and animal through selective breeding by humans for preferred characteristics into cultivated or tamed forms.
ethnic group group of people whose members share cultural characteristics.
feminization of poverty likelihood that women will be poor, malnourished, and otherwise disadvantaged because of inequalities within the household, the community, and the country.
G8 Group of Eight countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) whose heads of state meet each year to discuss issues of mutual and global concern.
harmattan hot, dry wind that blows out of inland Africa.
homelands areas set aside in South Africa for black residents as tribal territories where they were given limited self-government but no vote and limited rights in the general politics of South Africa.
Import substitution process by which domestic producers provide goods or services that were formerly bought from foreign producers
Informal economy economic activities that take place beyond official record and not subject to formalized systems of regulation or remuneration (e.g., street selling, petty crime)
International Monetary Fund (IMF) organization that provides loans to governments throughout the world
intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) region where air flows together and rises vertically as a result of intense solar heating at the equator, often with heavy rainfall, and shifting north and south with the seasons.
Irredentism assertion by the government of a country that a minority living outside its borders belongs to it historically and culturally.
microfinance programs programs that provide credit and savings to the self-employed poor, including those in the informal sector, who cannot borrow money from commercial banks.
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) eight goals to be met by the year 2015, agreed to by members of the UN, that include the eradication of poverty, universal primary education, gender equality, the reduction of child mortality, the improvement of maternal health
modernization theory economic development occurs when investment rates enable higher levels of industrialization, thus raising labor productivity and increasing the GDP per capita levels.
Pastoralism system of farming and way of life based on keeping herds of grazing animals-cattle, sheep, goasts, horses, camels, yaks, and so on, depending on the environment
rift valley block of land that drops between two others, forming a steep-sided trough, often at faults on a divergent plate boundary.
shifting cultivation agricultural system that preserves soil fertility by moving crops from one plot to another.
slash and burn agricultural system often used in tropical forests that involves cutting trees and brush and burning them so that crops can benefit from cleared ground and nutrients in the ash.
Transhumance movement of herds according to seasonal rhythms: warmer, lowland areas in the winter, and cooler, highland areas in the summer
Tribe form of social identity created by groups who share a common set of ideas about collective loyalty and political action
Created by: thesirpucas