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Geography Terms

Chapter 1

QuestionAnswer
biodiversity variety in the types and numbers of species in particular regions of the world
biogeography study of the spatial distribution of vegetation, animals, and other organisms
biome largest geographic biotic unit, a major community of plants and animals or similar ecosystems
capitalism form of economic and social organization characterized by the profit motive and the control of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of goods by private ownership
cartogram map projection that is transformed in order to promote legibility or to reveal patterns not readily apparent on a traditional base map climate
colonialism establishment and maintenance of political and legal domination by a state over a separate and alien society
colonization establishment of settlement in a place or region
commodity anything useful that can be bought or sold
commodity chains networks of labor and production processes that originate in the extraction or production of raw materials. The end result is the delivery and consumption of a finished commodity
communism form of economic and social organization characterized by the common ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange
continental drift slow movement of the continents over long periods of time across Earth's surface (see plate tectonics)
culture shared set of meanings that are lived through the material and symbolic practices of everyday life
demographic transition replacement of high birth and death rates by low birth and death rates
diaspora spatial dispersion of a previously homogeneous group
ecosystem complex of living organisms, their physical environment, and all their relationships in a particular place
gender social differences between men and women rather than the anatomical differences related to sex
geomorphology study of landforms
global warming increase in world temperatures and change in climate associated with increasing levels of carbon dioxide and other gases resulting from human activities such as deforestation and fossil-fuel burning
globalization increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of economic, environmental, political, and cultural change
greenhouse effect trapping of heat within the atmosphere by water vapor and gases, such as carbon dioxide, resulting in the warming of the atmosphere and surface
gross domestic product (GDP) estimate of the total value of all materials, foodstuffs, goods, and services that are produced in a country in a particular year
hegemony domination over the world economy, exercised through a combination of economic, military, financial, and cultural means, by one national state in a particular historical epoch
imperialism extension of the power of a nation through direct or indirect control of the economic and political life of other territories international division of labor
International Monetary Fund (IMF) organization that provides loans to governments throughout the world
International regime orientation of contemporary politics around the international arena rather than the national one
intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) region where air flows together and rises vertically as a result of intense solar heating at the equator, often with heavy rainfall, and shifting north and south with the seasons
kinship shared notion of relationship among members of a group often but not necessarily based on blood, marriage, or adoption
leadership cycles periods of international power established by individual states through economic, political, and military competition
mercantilism economic policy in which government controls industry and trade. nation group of people often sharing common elements of culture, such as religion, language, a history, or political identity
nationalism feeling of belonging to a nation as well as the belief that a nation has a natural right to determine its own affairs
nation-state ideal form consisting of a homogeneous group of people governed by their own state
neocolonialism economic and political strategies by which powerful states in core economies indirectly maintain or extend their influence over other areas or people
neoliberalism economic doctrine based on a belief in a minimalist role for the state, assuming the desirability of free markets as the ideal condition not only for economic organization but also for social and political life
plate tectonics theory that Earth's crust is divided into large solid plates that move relative to each other and cause mountain building, volcanic, and earthquake activity when they separate or meet
quaternary activity economic activity that deals with the handling and processing of knowledge and information
regional geography study of the ways in which unique combinations of environmental and human factors produce territories with distinctive landscapes and cultural attributes
regionalism strong feelings of collective identity shared by religious or ethnic groups that are concentrated within a particular region
regionalization geographer's classification of individual places or areal units
Secondary activity economic activity involving the processing, transformation, fabrication, or assembly of raw materials, or the reassembly, refinishing, or packaging of manufactured goods
sectionalism extreme devotion to local interests and customs
sense of place feelings evoked among people as a result of the experiences and memories that they associate with a place and to the symbolism that they attach to it
social movements organized movements of people with an agenda of political opposition and activism
sovereignty exercise of state power over people and territory, recognized by other states and codified by international law
spatial justice fairness of the distribution of society's burdens and benefits, taking into account spatial variations in people's needs and in their contribution to the production of wealth and social well-being
state independent political unit with territorial boundaries that are internationally recognized by other states
structural adjustment policies economic policies, mostly associated with the International Monetary Fund, that required governments to cut budgets and liberalize trade in return for debt relief
supranational organization collection of individual states with a common economic and/or political goal that diminishes, to some extent, individual state sovereignty in favor of the collective interests of the membership
sustainable development vision of development that seeks a balance among economic growth, environmental impacts, and social equity
tertiary activity economic activity involving the sale and exchange of goods and services
World Bank development bank and the largest source of development assistance in the world
world region large-scale geographic division based on continental and physiographic settings that contain major clusters of humankind with broadly similar cultural attributes
world-system interdependent system of linked by political and economic competition
Created by: thesirpucas