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Psychology 101 Fini

QuestionAnswer
Worldwide, psychological disorders rank ___ among diseases that lead to death and disability. second
A ___ is a mental image so vivid that they seem real hallucination
An example of a diathesis would be ___. genes
Some individuals believe that being labeled "mentally ill" can foster (a) ___. self-fulfilling prophecy
Personality disorders and mental retardation are classified on Axis ___ of the DSM. II
___ disorders occur where there is a disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, or identity. Dissociative
To be classified with major depressive disorder, an individual will typically have had at least ___ of depressed mood. two weeks
Rachael is experiencing "presenteeism," which means that she is less effective at work due to depression.
Reporting a sense of "imbalance" when depressed is particularly in ___ culture(s). Asian
Approximately ___% of people with depression attempt suicide. 30
Which of the following statements about suicide is TRUE? Discussing suicide openly can be helpful to someone who is suicidal.
All of the following are diagnostic criteria for a manic episode EXCEPT profoundly decreased self-esteem.
With respect to depression, "substance P" is a ___. neurotransmitter
Suppose Sally received a poor grade on an exam. All of the following might be considered an external cause for her failure EXCEPT her belief that she is not bright.
Rumination tends to foster ___. depression
If your roommate is depressed, then you will probably become depressed in time.
Panic attacks can include all of the above.
Agoraphobia often comes about due to the fact that those with panic attacks particularly fear ___. having more attacks
As with many disorders, panic disorder is often preceded by ___. a stressful life event
An example of a natural environment phobia could be ___. heights
Leah suffers from OCD and has a tendency to always want to align her dishes in perfect symmetry. As such, this illustrates ___. ordering
PTSD tends to occur more often to victims of crimes than natural disasters.
___ are MORE likely to have available social support. Extraverts
Ari, a schizophrenic, believes that he is an important governmental official. As such, he is showing delusions of ___. grandeur
Jeff is probably showing ___ schizophrenia since he shows bizarre and immobile motor behaviors. catatonic
Children are at an increased risk of schizophrenia if they show extreme discomfort with close relationships. True
Having a high expressed emotion family background definitively causes schizophrenia. False
Dissociative fugue is characterized by an inability to remember important personal information. False
The appears to be a link between dissociative identity disorder and being a victim of physical abuse. True
Women with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa are always underweight. False
Now that Ginny has eaten three pieces of pizza, she feels like it's not a problem to consume the whole pizza pie. This is consistent with the abstinence violation effect. True
Gregg has a pattern of excessive attention seeking and expression of emotion. As such, he likely has a histrionic personality disorder. True
Roughly 60% of male prisoners have antisocial personality disorder. True
According to Freud, the id contains two competing instincts, life and death.
According to Freud, the primary purpose of defense mechanisms is to protect people from conflict and anxiety.
When a threatening idea, memory, or emotion is blocked from consciousness, repression has occurred.
According to Freud, many adults who remain fixated at the oral stage of psychosexual development will smoke, bite their nails, or overeat.
When people refuse to admit something unpleasant is happening, denial has occurred.
According to Freud, a child's primary wish during the Oedipal stage is to get rid of the parent of the same sex.
According to object-relations theory, infants seek recognition and appreciation from their mothers.
When critics of psychodynamic theories note that these theories violate the principle of falsifiability, they mean that many concepts about unconscious motivations are impossible to confirm or disconfirm.
Researchers believe that the most valid and reliable way to identify personality traits is with the use of objective inventories.
Factor analysis is a statistical procedure that, when applied to personality testing, suggests that five specific factors or traits are central to personality.
According to Freud, the ego serves as a referee between the needs of instinct and the demands of society.
When a person's unacceptable feelings are repressed and then attributed to someone else, projection has occurred.
Sublimation occurs when people displace emotions into the creation of art or inventions.
According to Freud, people who are fixated at the oral stage of psychosexual development will be likely to overeat, bite their nails, or be clingy and dependent.
Freud felt that a child's personality is fundamentally formed when the Oedipus complex is resolved.
Jung and Freud differed most dramatically in their beliefs about the nature of the unconscious.
According to object-relations theory, boys first identify with their mothers.
An important criticism of psychodynamic theories is that they are derived from assumptions about children based on retrospective analysis by adults.
Current research suggests that the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is useful for predicting nothing with any reliability.
Of the following, the central factor that is NOT part of the Big Five is security versus insecurity.
Early and contemporary psychodynamic theories of personality agree that early childhood experiences produce unconscious thoughts and feelings that form the basis of personality.
According to Freud, the superego judges the activity of the id and acts as the voice of conscience.
When people direct their emotions toward things other than the real object of their feelings, displacement has occurred.
When a person reverts to immature behavior when under pressure, regression has occurred.
According to Freud, people who are messy and disorganized are likely fixated at the anal stage of psychosexual development.
Jung believed that archetypes are universal symbols, images, and themes that comprise the collective unconscious.
One of the most important ways that Freud and Jung differed in their views of personality was that Jung believed that people were motivated by future goals and a desire for self-fulfillment.
Object-relations theory differs from Freudian theory in that whereas Freud focused on infants' desires for gratification, object-relations theorists focused on human attachment.
Of the following, the strongest reason for NOT using retrospective analysis to draw conclusions and theorize about development is that retrospective reports suggest causal relations between events even when they don't occur.
Researchers argue that the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a popular but unreliable measure of personality.
___ therapy, in particular, rests on the basic learning principles. Behavior
The therapeutic technique of ___ is linked to the principle of habituation. exposure
In order to combat Francis' fear of snakes, his therapist suggests that he be exposed to snakes. This technique is known as ___ exposure. in vivo
Dr. Williams, a behavior therapist, believes in the importance of eliminating a behavior by not reinforcing it. This practice underlies ___. extinction
If a therapist is making use of self-monitoring techniques, then it is fairly likely that he or she is asking his or her patients to keep a daily log of their behavior.
Seth tends to be unkind and critical of others for their poor performances. Albert Ellis would probably label such behavior as indicative of ___. hostility and rage
Tina believes that she is either a complete success or an abject failure. This is illustrative of the cognitive distortion known as ___. dichotomous thinking
RET would NOT be especially helpful in the treatment of ___. psychotic disorders
Psychoeducation is often undertaken in cognitive therapy.
The original insight-oriented therapy was ___. psychoanalysis
Freud believed that the end goal of psychoanalysis was ordinary unhappiness.
Freudian slips are generally interpreted as having ___ meanings. unconscious
Rogers felt that psychological problems resulted from disparities in one's ___ selves. real and ideal
In the client-centered therapy, the clinician could dislike one's behavior but still view the client as a good person.
Does the expression of emotion have a therapeutic effect? Yes.
If Craig has been taking Thorazine, then he probably suffers from ___. schizophrenia
If you are taking an MAOI, you must be careful to never consume ___ with it. cheese
A major drawback to benzodiazepines is that they are ___. addictive
You should consider ECT if your depression has not been responding well to medication or if you've had serious side effects with medication.
Only about ___% of the response to an antidepressant arises from the active ingredients in the medication. 25
Group therapy became particularly population in the aftermath of ___. World War II
Dr. Phillips, a family therapist, is trying to convince a father that she truly understands his feelings. In doing so, she is using the process of ___. validation
Most 12-step programs, like Alcoholics Anonymous, view ___ as crucial to recovery. a belief in a Higher Power
Managed care was developed as a way to contain costs.
Cybertherapy refers to therapy over the Internet.
Head Start is an example of a prevention program. True
Research on psychotherapy is crucial for determining how well a new or old therapy treats a particular problem. True
Interpersonal therapy is considered an insight-oriented therapy. True
Knowing the attrition rates is irrelevant in the context of psychotherapy research. False
There are many studies that have found that psychotherapy can work as well as medication. True
For any particular person, psychotherapy may be more effective than medication or vice-versa. True
Most laypersons generally report fewer symptoms and a better life after therapy. True
For some disorders, the dodo bird verdict appears to be correct. True
The division of the mind that is very similar to short term memory in that it contains all the information a person is currently using and aware of is called: Conscious
A person who experiences great hunger decides to just push people out of the way on the line to a grocery store. Which personality structure dominated the behavior of this person? Id
According to Freud, during what stage of personality development do most children identify with the same sex parent as a means of helping to develop appropriate understanding of gender roles? Phallic
The Neo-Freudians (e.g., Jung, Horney) disagreed with all of the following ideas of Freud’s psychoanalysis EXCEPT: The use of defense mechanisms to mask anxiety
According to the strictest behaviorist view, personality development is influenced primarily by ______________. habits
Jessica has experienced many successes in playing basketball and is encouraged by others of her competence; however, she has a low assessment of her basketball abilities. She is most likely to: Have moderate self-efficacy
Billy’s parents show him love and affection when he brings home a report card with straight As. When he does not receive straight As in school, his parents become distant and cold. It is likely that Billy is experiencing _______________________. conditional positive regard
Which of the following statements about trait theories is FALSE? They can be used to explain behavior.
Organized, reliable, neat, and ambitious are all _________ traits of the more basic trait of consciousness. surface
Which of the following Big Five personality traits is associated with traits such as good natured, trusting, and helpful? Agreeableness
Twin studies examining the influence of biology on personality suggest that personality traits have a heritability of ____________. 25-50%
Which of the following is NOT a dimension of Hofstede’s dimensions of cultural personality? Universal rituals
In job intv, Jack accident stumbles over a chair as he approaches his potential employer to shake hand. From that point on, the employer perceives everything that Jack says as evidence to suggest that he is clumsy and careless. This is an ex of what Halo effect
Which of the following methods would most likely be used by a psychoanalyst to assess personality? Projective tests
The personality test that is most concerned with assessing abnormalities in personality is called: MMPI-2
Similar upbringings lead to similarities in children’s personalities. False
Inkblot tests are good indicators of underlying personality traits. False
Freud believed that sex was the only important drive in personality. False
There is strong evidence for the concept of “national character.” False
A woman has a dream about horseback riding, and a psychoanalyst interprets this dream as her desire to have sexual intercourse. What does sexual intercourse represent in this context? Latent content
All of the following are ways in which more current psychodynamic therapies differ from traditional psychoanalysis EXCEPT: Less emphasis on the role of dreams in revealing the contents of the unconscious
A humanistic therapist tells a client, “I totally understand how you feel; I am also very scared of medical doctors.” This is an example ofUnconditional positive regard Empathy Unconditional positive regard and Empathy
The primary function of Gestalt therapy is to: Focus on the incongruence between a client’s personality and what is socially acceptable.
A behaviorist decides that the best way to cure his client’s alcohol addiction is to place a drug in his alcohol that causes nausea, and then have the client drink the alcohol. This is an example of what type of technique? Aversion therapy
Sally learns to overcome her phobia of snakes by watching a second child overcome his phobia by being reinforced by a parent with a piece of candy each time he picked up the snake. This is an example of what behavioral technique? Modeling
Behavioral therapies are best suited for what type of psychological disorder? Phobias
A wife cleans the entire house until it is spotless, with the exception of a single plate in the sink. Because of this one plate, she feels she did a lousy job cleaning. What type of cog distortion common associated with depression does this re Selective thinking
Robert Ellis’ rational emotive therapy involves all of the following EXCEPT: Challenging distorted thought patterns, such as hallucinations and delusions, that occur with disorders such as schizophrenia
Which of the following disorders might benefit the most from group therapy? Depression
Each of the following is a characteristic of an effective therapeutic alliance EXCEPT: Success rate of the therapist in curing patients of their disorder
A person suffering from schizophrenia would be most likely given which of the following drug treatments? Neuroleptics
A client comes to a therapist reporting symptoms of depression. Which of the following medical treatments probably work best for the client? SSRI
Which of the following is most likely true concerning unilateral ECT? It will be less likely to have an adverse effect on the process of consolidation.
In one modern psychosurgery procedure, the brain region which connects the limbic system to the frontal lobes is destroyed. This area of the brain is called the: Cingulate gyrus
More experienced therapists are better than inexperienced therapists. False
People can overcome their fears by confronting them. True
Some therapies can be harmful. True
Electroshock therapy produces long-term brain damage. False
Lobotomies are used to control violent patients. False
Which of the following is a sufficient criterion for judging behavioral abnormality? The behavior causes an inability to function from day to day.
Biological models for explaining psychological disorders may investigate all the following factors EXCEPT: Parenting styles and their effects on the psychological development of children
What type of information is collected for a client on the DSM-IV-TR Axis II? More enduring personality disorders
The most common psychological disorder in the United States, according to an NIMH study in 2001 is: Dysthymic disorder
Anxiety that seems to have no real source, consists of excessive worrying, and is associated with physical symptoms such as difficulty concentrating, irritability, and sleeping problems is called: Generalized anxiety disorder
According to psychoanalysts, the cause of anxiety disorders stems from: Unconscious conflicts
Cindy visits doctor wkly & complains about a var of phys sx. Her emot displays at the dr’s office seem to exceed her worry about health. She threat suicide 1x when her dr didn't give her the atten she wanted. She is most likely to have what disord Somatization disorder
Shortly after killing a child while driving under the influence of alcohol, he unexpectedly wandered from home. He was found sev towns from home, malnourshd & taken to hosp. When the drs asked his name, he didn't know. It likely he has what disorder? Dissociative fugue
Janice tends to cycle from being very sad to very happy; however, there appears to be no external cause for her emotional fluctuations. She is likely to be suffering from what disorder? Cyclothymia
A psychologist has a patient that believes that they are being controlled by outside forces, such as the devil. This patient is likely to be suffering from what? Delusions of influence
Which type of schizophrenia is associated with frequent hallucinations, inappropriate affect, and disorganization in speech? Disorganized
The stress vulnerability model suggests: People who have a genetic marker for schizophrenia will not develop the disorder unless they are exposed to stress at critical times in development.
The personality disorder that is associated with the tendency to overreact and use excessive emotions to draw attention from and manipulate others is called: Histrionic
Each of the following are symptoms of most people with antisocial personality EXCEPT: Killing other people without feeling any guilt
Which of the following mood disorders is most closely associated with disruptions in the circadian clock? Seasonal affective disorder
The “insanity” defense is rarely used. True
Schizophrenia is the same as “split personality”. False
Not all psychopaths are violent. True
Individuals with one psychological diagnosis frequently have more than one diagnosis. True
Psychopathology is the study of abnormal behavior
Trepanning is drilling some holes in the skull
abnormal behavior is considered to be any behavior that is rare, deviates from the social norm within the situational context, causes subjective discomfort, or is maladaptive.
Psychological disorders are defined as a pattern of behavior that causes people significant distress, causes them to harm themselves or others, or interferes with their ability to function in daily life.
The psychoanalytical model suggests that disorders are the result of repressed thoughts in the unconscious mind
the behaviorist model explains disorders as a set of learned behaviors.
Cognitive psychologists have proposed the cognitive model which describes psychological disorders as resulting from faulty thinking patterns
Axis 1 contains all the psychological disorders except personality disorders.
Axis II includes personality disorders and mental retardation.
III includes an assessment of any physical disorders that affect a person psychologically
IV consists of problems in a person’s environment that may be affecting his or her psychological functioning.
Axis V is an assessment of a person’s overall (or global) level of functioning ranging from 0 to 100.
22 percent of adults in the United States could be diagnosed with a mental disorder.
Created by: Bethany Howard Bethany Howard on 2012-05-01



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