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World Geography Revu

Covers Final Chapters East, South, Southeast Asia

QuestionAnswer
List of Countries and Significance Region includes China, Japan, Mongolia, North & South Korea; considered the most heavily populated region in the world
Chinese “liberation” ethnic community of Tibet was attacked by the ‘liberators’ of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army in order to face strict state policies to modernize their economy and community in a way that leaves no trace of traditional ethnic values behind
Tectonic Activity characteristics of the region (incl. Tibetan plateau & Himalayan range) are product of collision with South Asian Plate; island boundaries are a result of tectonics along Western boundaries known as the Ring of Fire
Great Wall of China started construction by the Qin Dynasty and was built at various times between the 14th/mid-16th centuries
Imperialism in Japan brought Asian influence of Buddhism
Japanese Imperial Hierarchy Emperor (mere figure Head) →Shoguns (military and political leaders) →daimyos (powerful lords who controlled the provinces) →Samurai (Sh&Da service warriors)
Imperial Decline occurred because of famine, taxes, restriction of Euro-trade, uprising, Opium War
Opium War started in 1839 and ended in 1842 was the Chinese destroying of thousands of opium chests on British ships→ retaliation ensued and the Brits defeated Chinese forces
Treaty of Nanking result of the Opium War defeat; ceded Hong Kong to the British and allowed Euro-US trade access to China thru a series of ports opened to foreign trade as a result of major powers pressure.
Hong Kong island off the coast of the South China Sea that was given to the British as a provision of the Treaty of Nanking; was returned to China July 1st 1997
Matthew Perry introduced the concept of gunboat warfare which explains the forcible persuasion of a country to comply with orders or use of weaponry will be used until country complies; basically a rape of a country’s control/power
Sun Yat - Shen Nationalist Party began the Chinese revolution in 1911 and replaced the Qing dynasty with new republic under leadership of Sun Yat-Shen
Mao Zedong emerged as the leader of the communist party following the retreat known as the Long March; devised a strategy that aims at gaining support for a revolution led by China’s rural peasantry (85% of total population)
Taiwan island that is ruled under Nationalist leadership and retreated under US protection in the time of Mao Zedong’s take over of East Asia
Population as of 2010, 1.56 billion people live in this region (mostly near coastal areas)
Poverty of North Korea experienced by Kim Sung IL development of the military and advancing the technology of the military power
Japanese Economic Miracle 1st: high levels of personal savings, rapid acquisition of new technology, government support for industry, development of keiretsu, creation of favorable trade, technology, fiscal policy
The Great Leap Forward plan led by Mao Zedong to stimulate economic growth (1958-1962); failed because of famine due to bad weather and poor planning; estimation of 20 to 30 million people died during this period of time
Tibetan Plateau largely uninhabited, 25% of land, 1% of population, inland area with little access to water sources, no major urban centers
Major Landforms of the Region Turfan Depression, Himalayan ranges, Gobi Desert, Yangtze River, Ring of Fire
38th parallel the end of the Korean War
Rural peasantry category of people that were considered the majority of the population that Mao Zedong targeted to support the Communist party movement
Rice-Fish Culture The production of fish protein in rice ponds that benefits the sustainability of the rice crop and provides fish with abundant area to prosper and people with source of protein
Virgin Lands Program landscapes in the region near the Gobi desert that were plowed and large scale irrigation was installed to allow for farming, similar to Soviet Union VLP
DMZ Zone stands for ‘demilitarized zone’ and represents the rumored location of signifigant East Asian biodiversity. seperates N/S Korea and is completely uninhabitated
Silk Road created by the Qin dynasty, was an overland system of trade routes that connected China to Mediterranean Europe
Silk fabric that is highly desirable and largely associated with East Asia; produced from the fibers of cocoons of silkworms, practice of sericulture(production of silk) have been practiced since 2700 BCE
Japan and Buddhism Buddhist influences started very early on and became very pervasive in the
7th/8th centuries. Helped to established a new capital city
Kyoto traditionally recognized imperial capital that was the residence of Japan’s imperial family for more than 1,000 years. Considered a principal center of Japanese culture.
Tokugawa Dynasty strove to sustain traditional Japanese society (1603-1868), patriarchial government, banned Christianity, closed Japanese ports to foreign vessels and suppressed commercial enterprise
Cultural Revolution launched as an attempt to restore revolutionary spirit, reeducate the privileged, and re-affirm corrupt party officials;
SEZ’s Special Economic Zones used as important econ planning technique for China set up as carefully segregated export processing areas that offered Cheap Land and Labor, tax breaks to transnational corporations
First SEZ’s Shantou, Shenzhen, Xiamen, Zhuhai are all located in south china to build off of the prosperity of Hong Kong
Chinese Migration strictly controlled for about the past 50 years; for the most part it is a rural-to-urban migratory pattern
Tokaido Corridor
Economic Development China has second largest economic potential…Japan has the 3rd largest economy in the world
Asian Tigers of the Economy Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore
Religions and Differences Buddhism, Daoism, Confucianism, Shinto, Animism, Islam and many various folk religions are practiced
Confucianism philosophy based on the ethics of good governance and principles as well as importance of hard work, family life, and education does not have gods or afterlife, most widely recognized belief system in China even after years of Communist discouragement
World War 2 Recovery Strategies
Monsoons arid and subhumid regions expericence critical drought spells and are prone to flooding. The pattern is a result of the irregular summer monsoon rains that might produce a sudden deluge
Pacific Corridor loosely defined region of countries that border the Pacific Ocean
Korean War China fought on behalf of North Korea (lasted from 1949 to 1953)
Roof of the World nickname for the Tibetan plateau
Major Cities China—Beijing, Shenyang, Tianjin, Shanghai, Hangzhou, Guangzhou, Hong Kong; Japan—Tokyo, Osaka; South Korea--Seoul
Japanese Rapid Industrialization due to their successful military conquests
Major Rivers Yangzte, Huang He, Mekong, Xi
The Long March became known as the Communist organized strategic retreat covered 5,965 miles and killed 100,000 people in the process
Han Ethnicity Dominant ethnic group in China
Dalai Lama Tibet’s spiritual leader who was forced to flee in exile as a result of the Chinese “liberation” of Tibet in 1960’s. Today: expressions of devotion to the Dalai Lama are banned in the region.
Yak Tibetan plateau nomadic pastoralism rely heavily on the use of the Yak; considered the principal source of livelihood; supply milk, wool and meat. Their wool is used for the fabric of tents that is a distinctive component of the Tibetan landscape.
Agricultural Society
Tokyo Bay once known as Edo Bay
Japanese Population and Problems low birth rates and low death rates, overcrowding, longevity, aging population with no one to care for the elderly. Many adults live with their parents due to issues surrounding overcrowding
Globalization a very common practice in this region is the use of Child labor which is why so much of globalization is occurring here; it is cheaper to produce a product in this region than America which is why globalization is occurring
Little Emperors increasing trend of single-children families and tendency to spoil the child because of attention given
One Child Policy Urban peoples were restricted to 1 child, 2 children in rural areas, and 3 children in remote locations
Formosa former name of Taiwan
Domesticated Crops Millet, soybeans, peaches, apricots, rice, mandarin oranges, kumquats, water chestnuts, teas
Zaibastu a name for the Japanese caste monopolies
Hydraulic Civilizations civilizations in empirical China that were held together and expanded through the use of their capacity for holding and controlling water
Asia Brown Cloud blanket of air pollution that consists of sulfates, nitrates, black carbon, fly ash, and many other pollutants that reduce the amount of solar radiation that can trap heat and damage forests and crops by acid rain; also causes a number of health concerns
Regional culture adaptation distinctive climates have made regional areas adapt their production as a result of the variability in weather patterns. It has influenced the creative ways to use their lands
Urbanization mostly rural to urban and as of 2010, the urbanization rate for the region was 49% urbanized
Climate divided between four main climate variations. Tibetan plateau=variable highland climate, Western Interior=arid climate, North region= continental/mid latitude climates, Coastal china and southern Korea and Japan=humid subtropical climate
Physical Features 3 major physical divisions consisting of plateaus, basins, and plains separated by narrow, sharply demarcated mountain chains with many river systems and elevational gradients
Roof of the World a nickname for the Tibetan Plateau region
Empires of China history is complex; dynasties and empires were constantly changing and started as grand centralized states but slowly lost control to regional centers and finally collapsed as a forceful new dynasty emerged.
Characteristics of the Cultural Revolution brought attack on Chinese traditions and practices and harassed anyone who did not belong to the rural peasantry category of the population.
Problems of the One Child Policy romoted lots of infanticide esp. females, benefits changed population ratios, illegitimate terminations of pregnancy were used which caused big problems
Chapter 9: South Asia
Countries India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Kashmir, Afghanistan
Subregions Deccan Plateau, Mountain Rim, Peninsular Highland, Coastal Fringe
River systems 3 major river systems are the Indus, Ganges (Ganga), and the Brahmaputra
River deltas The main delta is the Bengal Delta and covers a large portion of Bangladesh and India. It is the product of the major rivers: Ganges, Brahmaputra, Meghna, and their distributaries
Climate lots of variable types of climate including deserts in the northwest region and wet tropical climate patterns in the coastal and island areas, humid subtropical climate in the Mountain Rim and near the ganges
Monsoon patterns The seasonal pattern is as follows: March-June is hot, mainly dry; Winter time is cool and mainly dry; July is the beginning of a wet monsoon that ‘BURSTS’ water all over and lasts until the later parts of Semptember. It
Bonded Labor when persons needing a loan have no security (funds) so they use their security thru the pledges of labor and/or their children’s labor as security, considered a cruel form of child labor
Grameen Bank a grassroots organization that serves the rural poor population in Bangladesh that does not follow established principles of banking but has proven to be a successful venture with 98% of loans borrowed, repaid.
Green Revolution an effort to boost agricultural production thru the imposition of modern technologies thru the use of pesticides, farmer dependency, HYV crops, and exhaustion of water supply
Hindutva social and political movement that calls on India to unite as an explicitly Hindu nation
Micro-credit or Microfinance fundamentals used by the Grameen Bank and provides small loans to poor people with no credit. 96% of borrowers of microfinance are women with children
Sundurbans distinctive part of Indias ecology that has untouched mangrove and tropical swamp forest, home to crocodiles and the largest population of Bengal tigers in the world; the word itself means beautiful forest
Terracing creation of distinctive landscapes of stepped, reinforced flat agricultural fields cut into steep slopes and keeps land from environmental disaster and soil erosion; used primarily in rainy mountainous areas
Religions of the region two most notable religions are Hinduism and Islam bc they are the most popularly practiced. Other religions are Buddhiism and Christianity
Hearth Areas word means areas of origin; the areas are the Harrapan and Vedic civilizations in the Plains
Mughal India A movement led by the Mughals of Turkey and took control over much of India, from 1526-1707, the rule driven by a desire to synthesize the best of many traditions that fell under his control of all the lands
Mohandas Gandhi leader and inspirational figure of the grassroots movement that resisted British Imperial rule and the act of partitioning thru their use of peaceful protests and nonviolent boycotting
Vertical Economic Integration a single company controls all the operations from growing tea to processing, management, transport, blending, packaging, and marketing
Estate Tamils low-caste Hindu workers who brought in by tea planters such as Lipton and were forced to endure atrocious working condititions and low wages. They are people who have been effectively enslaved thru vertical economic integration.
Plantation Workers the people that work on tea plantations and experience terrible working conditions and poverty.
Adaptation focus has gone into adapting the agricultural system that use inventive crop systems, agricultural biodiversity, social networks, and water storage to achieve stability and survival in this region
Ecosystem Peoples people in India who live at subsistence levels in sustainable ways that have protected and preserved the environment t
Megafauna large and exotic species of the region that are becoming endangered, they include rhinoceros, elephants, whales, and tigers.
Flood Hazards river systems and monsoons rains are the major threats to flooding
Arsenic Contamination an event that was discovered to be the biggest mass poisoning ever recorded.
HYV Crops stands for high yield variety crops and includes wheat and corn and doubles the production or hectare of land
Mujahideen a group of zealous, fundamentalist Islamic tribe leaders who were trained and armed by Pakistan that led a resistance against industrialization that countered Islamic ideals
Taliban a hard-line Islamist faction that imposes harsh religious laws and barabaric social practices
Al Qaeda a terrorist network that surfaced out of the Taliban regime; responsible for many terrorist attacks including 9/11 and became the center focus of the American military operation, “enduring freedom”
Major Cities Delhi, Karachi, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Begaluru, Chennai, Lahore, Dhaka, Kolkata
Languages major language families are Indo-Aryan(includes Hindi, Bengali, and Urdu) and Dravidian
Bollywood and Contemporary Culture
Informal Economy A common occurrence where jobs in the economic sectors are very scarce; includes activities of agriculture, craftwork, street vending; provides work for unsklilled laborers
Hinduism—location and about
Caste System a system of kinship groupings (called Jati) that are reinforced by language, region, and occupation; very traditional aspect of India’s cultural traditions, most jati are identified by a traditional occupation
Stages of Caste System religious and specially learned peoples are held in high esteem; people who pursue wealth and hold political power are less well regarded; those who perform menial tasks are accorded the least status of all
Untouchables the opposite end of all caste systems that consists of members who dispose of human waste and dead animals, Gandhi led people to dissociate this term from the caste system reference…they like to be called Dalits, which means the opressed
Endangered species Bengal Tigers, Rhinoceros, and Elephants are the most endangered species of this region
Buddhism—Location and about
Charlie Wilson
Zero Population Growth a product of the declining growth of birth rates in the region; rates in many states of southern India are roughly two births per woman
Adivasi tribal peoples in India that represent a signifigant part of the manual labor force
Physiographic Regions Bay of Bengal, Himalayas, Khyber Pass, River Systems, Western/Eastern Ghats
Cumulative Causation a self-reinforcing spiral of regional growth that attract more investment and faster
Islam—location and about
Sikhism—location and about
British legacy/imperialism
Christianity—location and about
Jainism—location and about
Raj the name for the British rule over South Asia
East Pakistan the former name of the region that is now called Bangladesh
Experience of Ecosystem Peoples experiencing being pushed onto unproductive soils and hillsides as commercial forestry and other things limit access to their land
Event of Arsenic Contamination Tube wells in Bangladesh were lined with durable and astable material that had arsenic in the material. These provided water to the public and caused certain types of cancer and sickness that the population is now dealing with
Chapter 10: Southeast Asia
Mainland Countries Burma(Myanmar), Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore
Island Countries Indonesia, Phillipines, Malaysia, Timor-Leste, Brunei
High Mountains Collision zones of the tectonic plates are associated with mountain building and the creation of many islands; many of the islands have high mountains, steep slopes, and narrow coastal plains
Low Islands a feature common of islands that is due to the subduction caused by tectonic plates
Settlement Mekong river access characterizes the main transportation and settlement corridor
Benefits of Mekong Settlement near this area provides water for irrigation, hydroelectric development, and is considered a productive fishery
Mekong Country Access Serves populations in underdeveloped countries of Laos and Cambodia; serves as a key trade network from Laos, Cambodia to China, Burma, Thailand
MRC Mekong River Comission; coordinated planning of flood control and dam projects and has studied environmental issues within the Mekong River Basin
Volcanoes risks are balanced by the benefits they provide in terms of soil nutrients for the region; rich fertile soil that is distributed through the ashes produced by volcanic eruptions proves to be a benefit for the region
Ring of Fire Indonesian and Phillipine volcanoes are part of this collection of volcanic activity; links the region with other regions and their seismic activity
Mount Pinatubo
Climate classification of the region is very hot and wet with equatorial convergence →← and seasonal monsoon winds that bring heavy rains; mainland tends to be drier w/ seasonal rain and islands are more variable in the year to year rainfall
World City
Opium the historically known crop that is used in a highly addictive drug called heroin; provides half of the global supply and has led to civic unrest and escalation of conflict in the area known as the Golden triangle
Wallace’s Line an area that distinguishes a section of two different ecologic divisions marked by a deep ocean trench btwn Bali and Lombok that remained ocean water during the ice age and prevented the mixing of types of ecology
Terraces heavy monsoon rains have meant that adaptation in the form of this practice must be used in order to grow rice; provides steep hillsides with leveled surfaces that facilitate water control and reduced erosion
Paddies construction and system of ridges around fields allows them to be flooded, plowed, planted and drained before harvesting
Rice farming stages highly labor intensive, preparing and maintaining fields, transplanting seedlings, weeding and harvesting each stalk by hand. Women do most of the labor because of the detail required
Deforestation most significant region-wide problem affecting forests that once dominated the region; demand for specialized products grew as trade increased and the result was an increase in forest explotation to meet demands
Rice production dominates the land area of the region; increase in production of the crop and its irrigation practice might have the ability to shift climatic variability in the region, slightly.
Deforestation impacts includes loss of species, habitat, flooding, soil erosion, smoke and pollution as a result of forest burning
Conservation efforts of deforestation enviromentalists and governments of region have started social movements and alliances to protect forests; Buddhist monks wrap trees in cloth to regard them as religious ornaments and makes the issue a taboo no-no
Islam influence dominates the religious atmosphere of the island countries and the population of Islamic believers in Indonesia outnumber those in the middle east; practices are more liberal tho
Hindu a common religion in Bali
Buddhism religion that dominates the mainland region of Southeast Asia
Wat 12th century kingdom of Angkor Wat created vast and majestic architecturally advanced capitals
Christianity common in the Phillipines, and found among the hill tribes of Burma and sparsely recognized in Vietnam; product of Spanish colonialism and French/British missionaries
Royalty religion and culture intersect in the reverence for the monarchies; Thai royal family is held in high, godlike esteem; pictures of the kings are a highlight in many people’s lives and are posted all over
Crony Capitalism practice in which leaders allow friends and family to control the economy
Kleptocracy leaders divert national resources for their own personal gain
Products of Wealth Concentration strongest economies have unequal wealth distribution because of the practices of crony capitalism and kleptocracy
Economic Inequality large variations that includes some of the world’s highest GDP’s and some of the lowest GDP’s
Definition of Poverty Between Regions wide variations as to what poverty means exist in the region but overall, the conditions are improving. It is not what Americans and developed countries would consider poverty
Main Physical regions mainland and insular regions that are not demarcated by the plate boundaries
Characteristics of Physiographic Regions very mountainous except for major valleys of the main river systems and some coastal plains
Communism groups in Vietnam led resistance to U.S. during the Cold War, most notably led to the Vietnam War
Ho Chi Minh recognized leader of the Communist resistance who established a government in the north city of Hanoi, Vietnam and ultimately led to the onslaught of the Vietnam War
Vietnam War most serious global manifestation of Cold War competition; brought terrible social and environmental effects in S.E. Asia and US domestic/intl politics
Domino Theory held that the communist takeover of South Vietnam would lead to the global spread of Communism throughout Southeast Asia; theory prompted US to send military advisors to South Vietnam in 1962
Agent Orange a defoliant used by U.S. forces (total douchebag move by the US) where they sprayed 5 milli acres of Vietnam that caused irreparable damage to human health and devasted ecosystems with poison
Killing Fields fields throughout Cambodia where millions of people were killed (roughly ¼ of the Cambodian population) and buried during the Khmer Rouge regime
ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations formed in 1967; distinctively anti-communist and provides a model for economic cooperation despite conflicts of all kinds; remains the position to stay out of any and all political situations of member nations
Culture System system introduced by the Dutch that required farmers to devote 1/5th of their land/labor to export-crop production with profits going to Dutch gov’t; especially crops of coffee and sugar
Sea Gypsies ethic groups of the insular regions that rely heavily on fishing and boat travel between islannds to sustain their daily caloric intake
Spice Islands focus of Dutch attempt to dominate trade; islands of focus were Molucca Islands of Indonesia; Dutch restricted production of valuable spices to control trade in the region
Swidden farming practice of slash-burn cultivation that clears land patches for future crop use
Pancasilia unity in diversity through belief in one God, nationalism, hummantitarianism, democracy, and social justice
Sawah another name for wet rice
Transmigration program that meant to redistribute populations to reduce civil unrest, increase food production, and further goals of regional development, national integration and spread of Indonesian language
Rice Bowls cast deltas that were transformed by workers for the irrigation systems and agriculture practices of rice production; changed the geography of Southeast Asia
Economic Complementaries of [S]-IJOR S[capital, skilled labor, technology, access to world markets, physical/commercial infrastructure]
Economic Complementaries of Malaysia SIJORI land, natural resources, semi-skilled labor, intermediate tech, basic infrastructure
Economic Complementaries of Indonesia SIJORI unskilled labor, basic tech, natural resources, undeveloped land
Entrepot a term used to describe import and transshipment centers of a region
Busiest Port in the World located in the island of Singapore
JSR/Growth TRIangle a product of Singapore’s investment in its neighboring regions promoted as borderless growth and an example of how to prosper in a globalizing world
Golden Triangle area in the highlands of Burma, Laos, and Thailand that are the centers of production for opium crops and a global/regional center for methamphetamines; provides an economic well-being to the otherwise poor area
Desakota distinct urban landscape in the form of extended metropolitan regions
Overseas Chinese migrant shift into jobs of retail and trading and employees for colonial trading companies
Biofuels/Palm Oil regarded as the newest energy source to be developed; palm oil is converted into biodiesel; expansion of the crop has led to a concern about the clearing of forests and threat to megafauna (esp. Orangutans)
Biodiversity of Indonesia ranked 2nd in terms of biodiversity, incl. 10% of world’s plants, bird and mammal species; two major forest types of evergreen (wetter areas) and tropical deciduous/monsoon (seasonal rains)
Spralty Islands a cluster of small islands located in the South China Sea just off the coast of North East Malaysia and South West Phillipines
EEZ’s stands for Exclusive Economic Zone
Gender roles roles of women in general have more authority within Southeast Asian families than in many other world regions; broad cultures are patriarchal and socioeconomic conditions are better for men than women
AFTA Asian Free Trade Association; created as a segment of ASEAN in 1993 to reduce national tariffs within the region and led to the growth of ASEAN
Urbanization rapid growth of cities have led to a mass over urbanization of the core and peripheries
Hill Tribes groups named after their geographic concentration in the sparsely populated regions of Thailand, Burma, Lao, Vietnam
Commercial Sex Industry constructed thru the role of Thailand in Vietnam War for US soldiers; centralized asian women as exotic/passive, aims to make commercial sex more readily available to local and high end business men
Child Sex Workers very young women are sold into bondage by rural families or smuggled into the industry via slavelike conditions and kidnappings; women might find sex work appealing and rational if background is poor rural families
Polygyny the practice of having more than one wife at a time, once legal in Thailand; ban imposed created the motivation for an underground economy of commercial sex
Martrilocality married couples move into the wife’s families home
Patrilocality married couples move into the husband’s families home
Architectural Influences spectacular capitals are examples of region’s influential kingdoms in 10th-12th centuries that were based on kinship and religious-royal bureaucracies
Created by: 887275053