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Chapter 23 - Resp.

Respiratory System

vibrissae nose hairs
olfactory mucosa lining the slitlike superior region of the nasal cavity, contains receptors for the sense of smell
respiratory mucosa balance of the nasal cavity mucosa is a pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium containg scattered goblet cells
lysozyme type of mucus sectreted by glands
defensins secrete by epithelial cells of the rspiratory mucosa that are natural antibiotics that help to get rid of invading microbes
meatus inferior groove into each concha
name the 3 regions of the pharynx nasopharynx, oropharynx & laryngopharynx
pharyngeal tonsil located on the posterior walls of the nasopharynx; traps & destroys pathogens entering the nasopharynx in air
name the two kinds of tonsils that lie embeded in the oropharyngeal mucosa pired palatine tonsils; & lingual tonsil
laryngopharynx common passageway for food & air & is line w. a stratified squamous eithelium
name the functions of the larynx provide a patent(open) airway, to act as a sqitching mechanism to route air & food into the proper channels & voice production (bc it houses the vocal cords)
vocal ligaments lies under the laryngeal mucosa on each side; attaches the arytenoid cartilages to the thyroid cartilage
laryngitis inflammation of the vocal folds; causes vocal folds to swell, interferin w their vibration; also caused by overuse of voice, very dry air, bacterial infections rumors & inhalation of irritating chems
Valsalva's maneuver when the abdomnal muscles contract & the intraabdominal pressure rises; heling to empty the rectum or bladder & can also splint (stabilize) the body trunk when 1 lifts a heavy load
submucosa a connective tissue layer deep to themucosa, contains seromucousglands that help produce the mucus "sheets" within the trachea
adventitia outermost layer that is a connective tissue layer that is reinforced internally by 16 to 20 C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage & is perfused tot eh perichondrium of theses cartilages
carina a spar of cartilage that projects posteriorly from its inner face marking the point where the trachea ends by splitting into the two primary bronchi
secondary (lobar) bronchi once inside the lungs, each primary bronchus subdivides into this; there are three on the right side & 2 on the left (each of which supplies one lung lobe)
tertiary (segmental) bronchi what the secondary bronchi branch divides into; divide repeatedly into smaller & smaller bronchi
bronchioles when air passages are under 1 mm in diameter
bronchial or respiratory tree the branching pattern, conducting network withing the lungs
respiratory zone defined by the presence of thin-walled air sacs called alveoli
name the hierchy of the respiratory zone terminal bronchioles-respiratory bronchioles-alveolar ducts-alveolar sacs
where does the actual exchange of gas occur in the alveoli
Type I cells a single laer of squamous epithelial cells that the walls of the alveoli are composed primarily of; their surrounded by a flimsy basal lamina
respiratory membrane (air-blood barrier) alveolar-capillary membrane; the combination of the alveolar & capillary walls and their fused basal laminas; has gas on one side & blood flowing past on the other
oxygen passes from the ___ into the blood alveolus
carbond dioxide ____ the blood to enter the gasfilled alveolus blood
type I cells are the primary source of ACE;angiotensin converting enzyme; plays a role in blood pressure regulation
type II cells secret a fluid containing surfactant that coats the gasexposed alveolar surfaces
alveolar pores allow air pressure throughout the lung to be equalized & provide alternate air routes to any alveoli whose bronchi have collapsed through disease
alveolar macrophages crawl freely along the internal alveolar surfaces (AKA dust cells)
hilus an indentation on the medial (mediasinal) surface of each lungq
what subdivides the left lung into tow lobes the oblique fissure
what subdivides the right lung into 3 lobes? the oblique & horizontal fissures
bronchopulmonary segments a certain amount of pyramid shaped segments present in each lung lobe; they are separated from one another by connective tissue septa; each sement is served by its own artery & vein & receives air from an individual segmental bronchus
each lung contains __ bronchopulmonary segments arranged in similar patterns 10
what is the importance of bronchopulmonary segments when a pulmonary disease occurs it is often confined to one or a few bronchopulmonary segments
lobule the smallest subdivision of the lung visible with the naked eye; each one is served by a large bronchiole & its branches
stroma balance of lung tissue
pulmonary arteries lie anterior to the primary bronchi; deliver systemic venous blood that is to be oxygenated in the lungs
pulmonary capilary networks fed off of the pulmonary arteries; surrond the alveoli
pulmonary veins conveys freshly oxygenated blood from the respiratory zones of the lungs to the heart
bronchial arteries provide systemic blood to the lung tissues, arise from the aorta & enter the lungs at the hilus
pulmonary plexus the transport vehicle for nerve fibers to enter each lung; located on the lung root & run along the bronchial tubes & blood vessels within the lungs
pleurae forma thin, double-layered serosa
parietal pleura covers the thoracic wall & superior face of the diaphragm; continues aroung the heart & between the lungs, forming the lateral walls of the mediasinal enclosure & snugly enclosing the root of the lung
visceral/pulmonary pleura an extension of the pleura that covers the external lung surface, dipping into & lining its fissures
pleurisy inflammati of the pleurae; often results fm pneumonia; pleural surfaces become dry & rough or over fluidized
name the two phases of pulmonary ventilation inspiration & expiration
inspiration period when air flows into the lungs
expiration period when gases exit the lungs
intrapulmonary pressure (Palv) pressure within the alveoli of the lungs (rises & falls with the phases of breathing)
intrapleural pressure (Pip) pressure within the pleural cavity; always about 4 mm Hg less than the pressure in the alveoli
fluids move from high to low pressure
transpulmonary pressure the difference between teh intrapulmonary & intrapleural pressures (Palv - Pip); keeps the airspaces of the lungs open/keeps lungs from collapsing
atelectasis lung collase, occurs when air enters the pleural cavity through a chest wounds, or a rupture of the visceral pleura which allows air to enter the pleural cavity from th rspiratory trat
pneumothorax the presence of air in the intrapleural space; can be reversed by closing the "hole" & drawing air out of the intrapleural space w chest tubes allowing the lung to reinflate & resume its normal function
pulmonary ventilation depends on volume changes occurring in the thoracic cavity
volume changes lead to ______ which lead to the _____ to equalize the pressure pressure changes; flow of gases
Boyles' law ideal gas law; states the relationship between the pressure & volume of gases; when a temperature is constant, the pressure of a gas varies inversely w/ its volume
name the inspiratory muscles the diaphragm & the intercostal muscles
when P-avl > P atm the pressure gradient forces gases to flow out of the lungs
F= delta P/ R shows the relationship between gas flow, prssure & resistance
gas flow changes ___ w. resistance inversely (gas flow decreases as resistance increases
surfactant a detergen-like complex of lipids & proteins produced by the type II alveolar cells
IRDS (infant respiratory distress syndrome) causes when too little surfactant is present, surface tension forces can collapse the alveoli; treated with positive pressure respirators that force air into the alveoli
FRC; functional resdual capacity combined residual & expiratory reserve volumes & represents the amount of air remaining in the lungs after a tidal expiration
VC; vital capacity total amount of exchangeable air (sum of tidal, inspiratory reserve & expiratory reserve volumes) 4800 ml
TLC; total lung capacity the sum of all lng volumes & is normally around 6000 ml in males
minute/total ventilation the total amount of gas that flows into or out of the rspiratory tract in 1 min
FVC; forced vital capacity measures the amount of gas expelled when a subject takes a deep breath & then forcefully exhales maximally & as rapidly as possible
FEV; forced expiratory volume determines the amount of air expelled during specific time intervals of the FVC test
how is alveolar ventilation computed? AVR(ml/min)= frequency (breaths/min) x (TV - dead space)(ml/breath)
Dalton's law of partial pressures the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture
partial pressure the pressure exerted by each gas; it is directly proportional to its percentage in the total gas mixture
Henry's law when a mixture of gases is in contact w/ a liquid, each gas will dissolve in the liquid in proportion to its partial pressure
oxygen toxicity develops rapidly when the P 02 is greater than 2.5-3 atomospheres
deoxyhemoglobin (HHb)/reduced hemoglobin hemoglobin that has released oxygen
Bohr effect oxygen unloading is accelerated where it is most needed
hypoxia inadequate oxygen delivery to body tissues
anemic hypoxia reflects poor oxygen delivery resulting from too few RBCs or from too few RBC or from RBCs that contain abnormal or too little hemoglobin
ischemic (stagnant) hypoxia results when blood circulation is impaired or blocked
histotixic hypoxia occurs when blody cells are unable to use oxygen even though adequate amounts ar delivered
hypoxemic (hypoxic) hypoxia indicated by reduced arterial P o2
carbon monoxide poisoning unique type of hypoxemic hypoxia & is the leading cause of death from fire
carbaminohemoglobin carries just over 20% of transported carbon dioxide thats carried within RBC
carbonic anhydrase an enzyme that reversibly catalyzes the conversion of carbon dioxide & water to carbonic acid
chloride shift the ionci exchange process; a rapid outrush of negative bicarbonate ions from the RBC chloride ions (Cl-) move from the plama into the erythrocytes
Haldane effect reflects the greater ability of reduced hemoglobin to form carbaminohemoglobin & to buffer H+ by combining with it
carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system (if the hydrogen ion concentration in blood begins to rise, excess H+ is removed by combining w. HCO3- to form carbonic acid (a weak acid that disociates very little at either physiological or acidic pH) (if H+ concentration drops below desirable levels i
eupnea normal respiratory rate & rhythm
peumotaxic center the more superior pons center continuously transmits inhibitory impulses to the inspiratory center of the medulla
apneustic center appears to provide inspiratory drive by continuously stimulateding themedullary inspiratory center
Created by: Brina