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MedTerm (Ch. 6)

Ch. 6: Digestive System

bilirubin orange-colored or yellowish pigment in bile
bolus mass of masticated food ready to be swallowed
exocrine denotes a gland that secretes its products through excretory ducts to the surface of an organ or tissue or into a vessel
sphincter circular band of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening of the body
What is the main function of the Digestive system? to provide vital nutrients for growth, maintenance, and repair of all organs and body cells
What is the relationship of the Digestive system to the Blood, Lymph, and Immune systems? (1) liver regulates blood glucose levels (2) digestive tract secretes acids and enzymes to provide a hostile environment for pathogens (3) intestinal walls contain lymphoid nodules to prevent invasion of pathogens (4) absorbs vitamin K for blood clotting
What is the relationship of the Digestive system to the Cardiovascular system? absorbs nutrients needed by the heart
What is the relationship of the Digestive system to the Endocrine system? (1) liver eliminates hormones from the blood to end their activity (2) pancreas contains hormone-producing cells
What is the relationship of the Digestive system to the Female reproductive system? (1) provides adequate nutrients, including fats, to make conception and normal fetal development possible (2) provides nutrients for repair of endometrium following menstruation
What is the relationship of the Digestive system to the Genitourinary system? (1) provides adequate nutrients in the development of viable sperm (2) liver metabolized hormones, toxins, and drugs to forms that can be excreted in urine
What is the relationship of the Digestive system to the Integumentary system? (1) supplies fats that provided insulation in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue (2) absorbs nutrients for maintenance, growth, and repair of the skin
What is the relationship of the Digestive system to the Musculoskeletal system? (1) provides nutrients needed for energy fuel (2) absorbs calcium needed for bone salts and muscle contraction (3) liver removes lactic acid (resulting from muscle activity) from the blood
What is the relationship of the Digestive system to the Nervous system? (1) supplies nutrients for normal neural functioning (2) provides nutrients for synthesis of neurotransmitters and electrolytes for transmission of a nervous impulse (3) liver plays a role in maintaining glucose levels for neural function
What is the relationship of the Digestive system to the Respiratory system? (1) absorbs nutrients needed by cells in the lungs and other tissues int he respiratory tract (2) shares the pharynx, divides into two tubes: the trachea (leads to lungs) and the esophagus (leads to stomach)
or/o mouth
stomat/o mouth
gloss/o tongue
lingu/o tongue
bucc/o cheek
cheil/o lip
labi/o lip
dent/o teeth
odont/o teeth
gingiv/o gum(s)
sial/o saliva, salivary gland
esophag/o esophagus
pharyng/o pharynx (throat)
gastr/o stomach
pylor/o pylorus
duoden/o duodenum (first pat of small intestine)
enter/o intestine (usually small intestine)
jejun/o jejunum (second part of small intestine)
ile/o ileum (third part of small intestine)
append/o appendix
appendic/o appendix
col/o colon
colon/o colon
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
rect/o rectum
proct/o anus, rectum
an/o anus
hepat/o liver
pancreat/o pancreas
cholangi/o bile vessel
chol/e bile, gall
cholecyst/o gallbladder
choledoch/o bile duct
-emesis vomit
-iasis abnormal condition (produced by something specified)
-megaly enlargement
-orexia appetite
-pepsia digestion
-phagia swallowing, eating
-prandial meal
-rrhea discharge, flow
dia- through, across
peri- around
sub- under, below
anorexia lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat
appendicitis inflammation of the appendix, usually due to obstruction or infection
ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
borborygmus rumbling or gurgling noises that are audible at a distance and caused by passage of gas through the liquid contents of the intestine
cachexia physical wasting that includes loss of weight and muscle mass; commonly associated with AIDS and cancer
cholelithiasis presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct
cirrhosis scarring and dysfunction of the liver caused by chronic liver disease
colic spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ especially in the colon, accompanied by pain
Crohn disease chronic inflammation, usually of the ileum, but possibly affecting any portion of the intestinal tract; also called 'regional enteritis'
deglutition act of swallowing
dysentery inflammation of the intestine, especially the colon, that may be caused by ingesting water or food containing chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasites, which results in bloody diarrhea
dyspepsia epigastric discomfort felt after eating; also called 'indigestion'
dysphagia inability or difficulty swallowing; also called 'aphagia'
eructation producing gas from the stomach, usually with a characteristic sound; also called 'belching'
fecalith fecal concentration
flatus gas in the GI tract; expelling of air from a body orifice, especially the anus
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus due to a malfunction of the sphincter muscle at the inferior portion of the esophagus
halitosis offensive, or "bad," breath
hematemesis vomiting of blood from bleeding in the stomach or esophagus
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptom complex marked by abdominal pain and altered bowel function (typically constipation, diarrhea, or alternating constipation and diarrhea) for which no organic cause can be determined; also called 'spastic colon'
malabsorption syndrome symptom complex of the small intestine characterized by the impaired passage of nutrients, minerals, or fluids through intestinal villi into the blood or lymph
melena passage of dark-colored, tarry stools, due to the presence of blood altered by intestinal juices
obesity excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal body weight
morbid obesity BMI of 40 or greater, which is generally 100 or more pounds over ideal weight
obstipation severe constipation; may be caused by an intestinal obstruction
oral leukoplakia formation of white spots or patches on the mucous membrane of the tongue, lips, or cheek caused primarily by irritation
peristalsis progressive, wavelike movement that occurs involuntary in hollow tubes of the body, especially the GI tract
pyloric stenosis stricture or narrowing of the pyloric sphincter (circular muscle of the pylorus) at the outlet of the stomach, causing an obstruction that blocks the flow of food into the small intestine
regurgitation backward flowing, as in the return of solids or fluids to the mouth from the stomach
steatorrhea passage of fat in large amounts in the feces due to failure to digest and absorb it
endoscopy visual examination of a cavity or canal using a flexible fiberoptic instrument called an 'endoscope'
upper GI endoscopy endoscopy of the esophagus (esophagoscopy), stomach (gastroscopy), and duodenum (duodenoscopy)
lower GI endoscopy endoscopy of the colon (colonoscopy), sigmoid colon (sigmoidoscopy), and rectum and anal canal (proctoscopy)
hepatitis panel panel of blood tests that identify the specific virus-hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis B (HBV), or hepatitis C (HCV)-causing hepatitis by testing serum using antibodies to each of these antigens
liver function tests (LFTs) group of blood tests that evaluate liver injury, liver function, and conditions often associated with the biliary tract
serum bilirubin measurement of the level of bilirubin in the blood
stool culture test to identify microorganisms or parasites present in feces
stool guaiac applying a substance called guaiac to a stool sample to detect presence of occult (hidden) blood in the feces; also called 'Hemoccult' (trade name of a modified guaiac test)
barium enema (BE) radiographic examination of the rectum and colon following enema administration of barium sulfate (contrast medium) into the rectum; also called 'lower GI series'
barium swallow radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine following oral administration of barium sulfate (contrast medium); also called 'esophagram' and 'upper GI series'
cholecystography radiographic images taken of the gallbladder after administration of a contrast material containing iodine, usually in the form of a tablet
computed tomography (CT) imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angels
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) endoscopic procedure that provides radiographic visualization of the bile and pancreatic ducts to identify partial or total obstruction, as well as stones, cysts, and tumors
percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTCP) radiographic examination of bile duct structures
sialography radiologic examination of the salivary glands and ducts
abdominal ultrasound ultrasound visualization of the abdominal aorta, liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, pancreas, kidneys, ureters, and bladder
liver biopsy use of a large-bore needle to remove a core of liver tissue fro histological examination
nasogastric intubation procedure that involves insertion of a nasogastric tube through the nose into the stomach to relieve gastric distention by removing gas, food, or gastric secretion; to instill medication, food, or fluids; or to obtain a specimen for laboratory analysis
anastomosis surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another
ileorectal anastomosis surgical connection of the ileum and rectum after total colectomy, as is sometimes performed in the treatment of ulcerative colitis
intestinal anastomosis surgical connection of two portions of the intestines; also called 'enteroenterostomy'
bariatric surgery group of procedures that treat morbid obesity, a condition which arises from severe accumulation of excess weight as fatty tissue, and the resultant health problems
vertical banded gastroplasty upper stomach near esophagus is stapled vertically to a small pouch; a band is then inserted that restricts food consumption and delays its passage from the pouch, causing a feeling of fullness
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RGB) (1) stomach is stapled to a small pouch (2) jejunum is shortened and connected to small pouch, causing base of duodenum leading from nonfunctioning portion of stomach to form a Y configuration; decreases food pathway, less absorption of calories and fat
colostomy creation of an opening of a portion of the colon through the abdominal wall to its outside surface in order to divert fecal flow to a colostomy bag
lithotripsy procedure for crushing a stone and elimination its fragments either surgically or using ultrasonic shock waves
extracorporeal shockwave use of shock waves as a noninvasive method to break up stones in the gallbladder or biliary ducts
polypectomy excision of a polyp
pyloromyotomy incision of the longitudinal and circular muscles of the pylorus; used to treat hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
antacids counteract or neutralize acidity, usually in the stomach (1) calcium carbonate: Mylanta, Rolaids, Tums
antidiarrheals control loose stools and relieve diarrhea by absorbing excess water in the bowel or slowing peristalsis in the intestinal tract (1) loperamide: Imodium (2) kaolin/pectin: Donnagel-MB, Kapectolin
antimetrics control nausea and vomiting by blocking nerve impulses to the vomiting center of the brain (1) prochlorperazine: Compazine, Compro (2) trimethobenzamide: T-Gen, Tigan
antispasmodics decrease GI spasms by slowing peristalsis and motility throughout the GI tract (1) glycopyrrolate: Robinul (2) propantheline: Pro-Banthine
laxatives treat constipation by increasing peristaltic activity in the large intestine or increasing water and electrolyte secretion into the bowel to induce defecation (1) senna, sennosides: Senokot, Senolax (2) psyllium: Metamucil, Natural Fiber Supplement
ABC aspiration biopsy cytology
alk phos alkaline phosphatase
ALT alanine aminotransferase
AST angiotensin sensitivity
Ba barium
BE barium enema
BM bowel movement
BMI body mass index
CF cystic fibrosis
CT computed tomography
EGD esophagogastroduodenoscopy
ERCP endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
GB gallbladder
GBS gallbladder series (x-ray studies)
GER gastroesophageal reflux
GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease
GI gastrointestinal
HAV hepatitis A virus
HBV hepatitis B virus
HCV hepatitis C virus
HDV hepatitis D virus
HEV hepatitis E virus
IBS irritable bowel syndrome
LFT liver function test
NG nasogastric
PE physical examination; pulmonary embolism
PTHC percutaneous transhepatic cholangeography
stat, STAT immediately
PMH past medical history
PUD peptic ulcer disease
RGB Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
R/O rule out
a.e. before meals
b.i.d. twice a day
hs half strength
h.s. at bedtime
NPO, n.p.o. nothing by mouth
pc, p.c. after meals
p.o. by mouth
p.r.n. as required
qAM every morning
q.d. every day
q.h. every hour
q.2h. every 2 hours
q.i.d. every 4 hours
q.o.d. every other day
qPM every evening
t.i.d. three times a day
Created by: 10234895