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Test 2

Tissues, Skin, Skeleton

QuestionAnswer
Which tissue covers body surfaces and lines hollow organs, body cavities, and ducts? Epithelial tissue
Which tissue protects and supports the body and its organs, binds organs together, stores energy reserves as fat, and helps provide immunity? Connective tissue
Which tissue generates the physical force needed to make body structures move? Muscle tissue
Which tissue detects changes in a variety of conditions inside and outside the body and responds to help maintain homeostasis? Nervous tissue
Most epithelial cells and some muscle and nerve cells are tightly joined into functional units by points of conact between their plasma membranes called what? Cell junctions
What forms tight seals between cells to prevent substances from passing between the cells? Cell junctions
What can anchor cells to one another so that they do not separate while performing their functions? Cell junctions
Why are cell junctions important? It is important for tissues that line the stomach, intestines, and urinary bladder because it prevents the content of these organs from leaking out.
What can provide channels for ions and molecules to pass from cell to cell within a tissue, allowing communication between cells and enabling nerve or muscle impulses to spread rapidly among cells? Cell junctions
Which tissue consists of cells arranged in continuous sheets in single or multiple layers? Epithelial tissue
Which tissue is an excellent protective barrier for body surfaces? Epithelial tissue
In epithelial tissue, the cells are closely packed with little intercellular space between adjacent plasma membranes are held tightly together by what? Cell junctions
What part of an epithelial cell faces the body surface, body cavities, interior space of organs, or tubular ducts that receive cell secretions? Apical (free) Surface
What surface of an epithelial cell faces the adjacent cells on either side and may contain cell junctions? Lateral surfaces
Which surface of an epithelial cell is opposite the apical surface and adheres to extracellular materials? Basal surfaces
Which is the most superficial layer of epithelial cells? Apical
What is the deepest layer of epithelial cells? Basal
What is a thin extracellular layer that commonly consists of two layers? Basement membrane
What is closer to the epithelial cells and is secreted by them and contains proteins such as collagen and laminin, as well as glyco proteins? Basal Lamina (thin layer)
What is deep to the basal lamina and contains fibrous proteins produced by underlying connective tissue cells called fibroblasts? Reticular Lamina
What forms a surface along which epithelial cells migrate during growth or wound healing, restrict passage of larger molecules between epithelium and connective tissue, and participate in filtration of blood in the kidneys? Basement membranes
What tissue has its own nerve supply but is avascular because it lacks its own blood supply? Epithelial tissue
How does the exchange of substances between epithelium and connective tissue occur? Diffusion
What kind of tissue has a high rate of cell division and is constantly renewing and replacing them? Epithelial tissue
Protection, filtration, secretion, absorption, and excretion are the important roles of which tissue? Epithelial
What kind of tissue forms the outer covering of the skin and some internal organs? Covering and lining epithelium
Which tissue constitutes the secreting portion of gland? Glandular epithelium
What tissue is classified by the arrangement of cells into layers and the shapes of cells? Covering and lining epithelial tissue
What kind of tissue is a single layer of cells that functions in diffusion, filtration, secretion, and absorption? Simple epithelium
Which cells are arranged like floor tires and are thin, allowing the rapid movement of substances through them? Squamous cells
Which cells are tall and wide and are shaped like hexagons sometimes have microvilli at their apical surface and function in either secretion or absorption? Cuboidal cells
Which cells are taller than they are wide and protect underlying tissues? Columnar cells
Which cells change shape from flat to cuboidal as organs such as the urinary bladder stretch to a larger size and then collapse to a smaller size? Transitional cells
Which epithelial tissue is found at sites where filtration and diffusion takes place, but not found in body areas that are subject to wear and tear? Simple squamous epithelium
What is a simple squamous epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels? Endothelium
What is the type of simple squamous epithelium that forms the epithelial layer of membranes (peritoneum)? Mesothelium
What kind of epithelium is found in organs such as the thyroid gland and kidneys and performs the functions or secretion and absorption? Simple cuboidal epithelium
Which kind of epithelium contains two type of cells: columnar epithelial cells with microvilli at their apical surface, and goblet cells? Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium
What increases the rate of absorption by the cell? Microvilli
What are modified columnar epithelial cells that secrete mucus at their apical surface? Goblet cells
Why is secreted mucus important? It lubricates and offers protective covering for the lining of the digestive, respiratory, reproductive, and urinary tract.
What kind of epithelium contains columnar epithelial cells with cilia at their apical surface? Ciliated simple columnar epithelium
What helps move oocytes expelled from the ovaries through the uterine tubes into the uterus and move cerebrospinal fluid through passageways in the central nervous system? Cilia
What kind of epithelium is durable and can protect underlying tissues? Stratified epithelium
What tissue is one of the most abundant and widely distributed tisses in the body? Connective tissue
Which tissue binds, supports, and strengthens other body tissues? Connective tissue
Which tissue protects and insulates internal organs, and compartmentalizes structures such as skeletal muscles? Connective tissue
Which tissue is the major transport system within the body? Connective tissue
Which tissue is the major site of stored energy reserves? Connective tissue
What cells retain the capacity for cell division and secrete the extracellular matrix that is characteristic of the tissue? Blast cells
In cartilage and bone, once the extracellular matrix is produced the blast cells diffenciate into mature cells with the names ending in what? -cyte
What have reduced capacity for cell division and extracellular matrix formation and are mostly involved in maintaining the matrix? Mature cells ( or -cyte)
What are large, flat cells with branching processes present in several connective tissues? Fibroblasts
What migrates through the connective tissue, secreting the fibers and ground substances to the extracellular matrix? Fibroblasts
What engulf bacteria and cellular debris by phagocytosis? Macrophages
What cells secrete antibodies? Plasma cells
What cells produce histamine? Mast cells
What are connective tissue cells that store triglycerides? Adipocytes
What cells are not found in significant numbers in normal connective tissue, but in response to certain conditions they migrate from blood into connective tissues to mediate immune system responses? White blood cells
What is the component of a connective tissue between the cells and fibers? Ground substance
What supports cells, binds them together, stores water, and provide a medium through which substances are exchanged between the blood and cells? Ground substance
What plays an active role in how tissues develop, migrate, proliferate, and change shape and in how they carry our their metabolic functions, and contains water and glycosaminoglycans (GAG)? Ground substance
What is a viscous, slippery substance that binds cells together, lubricates joints, and helps maintain the shape of the eyeballs? Hyaluronic acid
What fibers are very strong and resist pulling forces and allow tissue flexibility? Collagen fibers
What fibers occur in bundles lying parallel to each other, providing strength? Collagen fibers
What fibers are bound in bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments? Collagen fibers
What fibers branch and join together to form a network within a tissue? Elastic fibers
What fibers have the ability to return to their original shape after being stretched, and are plentiful in skin, blood vessel walls, and lung tissue? Elastic fibers
What fibers consist of collagen arranged in fine bundles with a coating of glycoprotein, providing support in the walls of blood vessels and form a network around the cells in some tissues? Reticular fibers
What are thinner than collagen fibers and found in stroma, and help form the basement membrane? Reticular fibers
What kind of tissue is present primarily in the embryo and fetus? Embryonic connective tissue
What kind of connective tissue is present after birth? Mature connective tissue
In what kind of connective tissue are fibers loosely intertwined and many cells are present? Loose connective tissue
What is one of the most widely distributed connective tissues in the body, contains several kinds of cells, including fibroblasts, microphages, plasma cells, mast cells, adipocytes, and a few white blood cells? Areolar connective tissue
Strength, elasticity, and support are the functions of which connective tissue? Areolar connective tissue
Which type of tissue consists of cells specialized to store triglycerides as a large centrally located droplet? Adipose tissue
What kind of tissue reduces heat loss through skin, serves as an energy reserve, and supports and protects? Adipose tissue
What kind of tissue is located around the heart and kidneys, yellow bone marrow, and padding around joints and behind the eye socket? Adipose tissue
What kind of tissue forms stroma (suuport network) of organs, filters, and removes wornout blood cells in the spleen and microbes in lymph nodes? Reticular connective tissue
What kind of tissue consists mainly of collagen fibers arranged in parallel bundles and fibroblasts present in rows between the fiber bundles? Dense regular connective tissue
What kind of tissue forms tendons, ligaments, and aponeuroses? Dense regular connective tissue
Which kind of connective tissue consists predominantly of collagen fibers, randomly arranged, and a few fibroblasts? Dense irregular connective tissue
What kind of connective tissue provides strength and is found in fasciae (tissue around muscles and other organs), dermis of skin, periosteum, perichondrium, joint capsules, membrane capsules around various organs, pericardium and heart valves? Dense irregular connective tissue
What kind of connective tissue consists predominantly of freely branching elastic fibers and fibroblasts present in spaces between the elastic fibers? Elastic connective tissue
What kind of connective tissue allows the stretching of various organs and is found in lung tissues, trachea, bronchial tubes, wall of some artieries, and ligaments in penis and vertebrae? Elastic connective tissue
What consists of a dense network of collagen fibers and elastic fibers firmly embedded in chondroitin sulfate? Cartilage
What is a gel-like component of the ground substance? Chondroitin sulfate
What can endure considerably more stress than loose and dense connective tissue due to its collagen fibers and no blood supply makes it heal slowly following an injury? Cartilage
What are cells of mature cartilage found within spaces called lacunae? Condrocytes
What kind of cartilage consists of a bluish-white shiny ground substance with fine, pale collagen fibers and many condrocytes? Hyaline cartilage
What kind of cartilage is found at the ends of long bones, anterior ends of ribs, parts of nose, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and embryonic and fetal skeleton? Hyaline cartilage
What kind of cartilage provides smooth muscle surfaces for movement at joints, as well as flexibility and support? Hyaline cartilage
What cartilage consists of chondrocytes located among a threadlike network of elastic fibers within the extracellular matrix of this type of cartilage? Fibrocartilage
What kind of cartilage combines strength and rigidity and is the strongest of the three types of cartilage? Fibrocartilage
What kind of cartilage consists of chondrocytes located among a threadlike network of elastic fibers within the extracellular matrix? Elastic cartilage
What kind of cartilage is highly flexible, resilient, and maintains the shape of certain structures such as the ear? Elastic cartilage
What kind of tissue consists of osteocytes in lacunae and an extracellular matrix arranged in concentric rings or thin columns? Bone tissue
What kind of tissue supports, protects, stores, houses blood-forming tissue, and serves as levels that act together with muscle tissue to enable movement? Bone tissue
What kind of tissue is either spongy or compact depending on how its extracellular matrix and cells are organized? Bone tissue
In what kind of tissue are cells suspended in a liquid extracellular matrix? Liquid connective tissue
What is a connective tissue with a liquid extracellular matrix? Blood
What is a liquid extracellular matrix with blood? Blood plasma
What is found within blood vessels and chambers of the heart? Blood
What kind of cell transports respiratory gases? Red blood cells
What kind of cells carry on phagocytosis and contribute to immune responses? White blood cells
What kind of cells are essential for blood clotting? Platelets
What is a connective tissue that flows in lymphatic vessels and consists of several types of cells in a clear liquid extracellular matrix that is similar to blood plasma, but with much less protein? Lymph
What kind of connective tissue circulates body fluids, transports lipids, and helps to defend the body against pathogens? Lymph
What are flat sheets of pliable tissue that cover or line a part of the body? Membranes
The combination of an epithelial layer and an underlying connective tissue layer constitutes what? Epithelial membrane
What kind of membrane lines a body cavity that opens directly to the exterior? Mucous membrane
What kind of membrane lines the entire digestive, respiratory, reproductive tracts, and most of the urinary tract? Mucous membrane
What serves as a lubricant and also an important barrier that microbes and other pathogens have difficulty penetrating? Mucous membrane
What is the connective tissue layer of a mucous membrane? Areolar connective tissue (lamina propria)
What supports the epithelium, binds it to the underlying structures, allows some flexibility of the membrane, holds blood vessels in place, and protects underlying muscles from abrasion or puncture? Areolare connective tissue (lamina propria)
What kind of membrane lines a body cavity that does not open directly to the exterior and covers the organs that lie within the cavity? Serous membrane
What is the layer of serous membranes that attaches to the cavity wall? Parietal layer
What is the layer of serous membranes that covers and attaches to the organs inside the cavity? Visceral layer
What in a serous membrane secretes serous fluid, a watery lubricating fluid that allows organs to glide easily over one another or to slide against the walls of cavities? Mesothelium
What membrane covers the surface of the body and consists of a superficial portion called the epidermis and a deeper portion called the dermis? Cutaneous membrane
What membrane lines the cavities of freely movable joints and also line cushioning sacs easing the movement of muscle tendons? Synovial membranes
What tissue consists of elongated cells that can use ATP to generate force and produces body movements, maintains posture, and generates heat? Muscle tissue
What kind of muscle tissue is striated, containing alternating light and dark bands called striations? Skeletal muscle tissue
What tissue is very long, cylindrical in shape, and has many nuclei located at the periphery of the cell and has individual muscles that are parallel to each other? Skeletal muscle tissue
What kind of muscle tissue is voluntary because it can be made to contract or relax by conscious control, and it is usually attached to bones by tendons? Skeletal muscle tissue
What kind of muscle has branched, striated fibers with one or two centrally located nuclei? Cardiac muscle tissue
What kind of muscle tissue is involuntary because its contractions are not consciously controlled and is located in the heart wall and pumps blood to all parts of the body? Cardiac muscle tissue
What kind of tissue is spindle-shaped, contains single, centrally located nuclei, and is usually involuntary? Smooth muscle tissue
What kind of tissue is found in the iris of the eyes and walls of hollow internal structures such as blood vessels, airways to the lungs, stomach, interstines, gallbladder, urinary bladder, and uterus? Smooth muscle tissue
What kind of muscle constricts blood vessels and airways, propels foods through the gastrointestinal tract, and contracts the urinary bladder and gallbladder? Smooth muscle tissue
What are sensitive to various stimuli, convert stimuli into electrical impulses and consists of three basic parts: a cell body, dendrites, and axons? Neurons
What contains the nucleus and other organelles in a neuron? Cell body
What are tapering, highly branched and usually short cell processes that are the major receiving or input portion of a neuron? Dendrites
What is a single, thin, cylyindrical process that may be very long. It is the output portion of a neuron, conducting nerve impulses toward another neuron or to some other tissue? Axon
What are generally smaller than neurons, do not generate or conduct impulses, but serve the important functions of supporting, nourishing, and protecting delicate neurons? Neuroglia
What tissue consists of neurons and neuroglia? Nervous tissue
What do not generate or conduct nerve impulses but have important supporting functions, exhibits sensitivity to various types of stimuli, converts stimuli into nerve impulses, and conducts nerve impulses to other neurons, muscle fibers, or glands? Nervous tissue
What is the process that replaces worn-out, damaged, or dead cells? Tissue repair
What kind of cells endure considerable wear and tear and have a continous capacity for renewal? Epithelial cells
What has continuous renewal in bones, but cartilage repairs slowly due to lack of blood supply? Connective tissue
What tissue has very limited repairing capacity? Muscle tissue
What kind of tissue has the poorest capacity for renewal? Nervous tissue
What is tissue growth through cell multiplication? Hyperplasia
What is the enlargement of preexisting cell? Hypertrophy
What is muscle growth through exercising an example of? Hypertrophy
What is the growth of a tumor through growth of abnormal tissue? Neoplasia
What is the changing from one type of mature tissue to another? Metaplasia
What is the process where unspecialized cells become specialized? Differentiation
What is the loss of cell size or number (lack of use)? Atrophy
What is the pathological death of tissue? Neocrosis
What is gangrene an example of? Neocrosis
What is programmed cell death where cells disintegrate into membrane-bound particles that are phagocytized? Apoptosis
What covers the external surface of the body? Skin or Cutaneous membrane
What is the largest organ of the body in surface area and weight? Skin or Cutaneous membrane
What is the largest organ in the body in surface area and weight? Skin or Cutaneous membrane
What develop from epidermis during embryonic development? Accessory organs
What helps regulate body temperature, serves as a water-repellent and protective barrier, contains sensory nerve endings, excretes salts, and helps with the synthesis of vitamin D? Skin
What is the superficial, thinner portion of the skin composed of epithelial tissue? Epidermis
What is the deeper, thicker, connective tissue portion of the skin? Dermis
What is dep to the dermis, not part of the skin, which serves as a storage depot for fat and contains large blood vessels that supply the skin? Hypodermis
What are contained in the hypodermis that contain nerve endings sensitive to pressure? Lamellated corpuscles
What covers all parts of the body except for the palms, palmar surfaces, and soles? Thin skin
What has a thin epidermis, fewer sweat glands than thick skin, and a sparse distribution of sensory receptors? Thin skin
What covers the palms, palmar surfaces of the fingers and soles and has dense sensory receptors and numberous sudoriferous glands? Thick skin
What are the most numerous epidermal cells, are arranged in four or five layers, and produce keratin? Keratinocytes
What is a tough, fibrous protein that helps protect the skin and underlying tissues from heat, microbes, and chemicals, and also releases a waterproofing sealant? Keratin
What are found in the deepest layer of the epidermis and produces the pigment melanin? Melanocytes
What is a brown-black pigment that contributes to skin color and absorbs damaging ultraviolet light? Melanin
What kind of cells constitute a small fraction of the epidermal cells and participate in immune responses mounted against microbes that invade the skin and are easily damaged by UV light? Langerhans cells
What are the least numerous of the epidermis that function together in the sensation of touch? Merkel cells
What is the deepest layer of the epidermis and is composed of a single row of cuboidal or columnar keratinocytes? Stratum basale
What has 8-10 layers of keratinocytes fit closely together and appear shiny in histology slides? Stratum spinosum
What consists of three to five layers of flattened keratinocytes undergoing apoptosis and has lamellar granules? Stratum lucidum
What consists of 25 to 30 layers of dead, flat keratinocytes which are continuously shed? Stratum corneum
What is composed mainly of connective tissue containing collagen and elastic fibers? Dermis
Where are blood vessels, nerves, glands, and hair follicles embedded? Dermal tissue
What makes up one fifth of the dermis and consists of areolar connective tissue containing fine elastic fibers? Papillary region
In the papillary region, what increases its surface area with small, fingerlike projections? Dermal papillae
What is attached to the hypodermis and consists of dense irregular connective tissue containing bundles of collagen and some coarse elastic fibers? Reticular region
What in the reticular region provides the skin with strength, extensibility, and elasticity? Collagen and elastic fibers
What causes the skin's color to vary from pale yellow, to tan, to black? Melanin
What are melanin-producing cells and are most plentiful in the epidermis of the penis, nipples, areolae, face, and limbs? Melanocytes
What are in similar numbers person to person, so differences in skin color are due mainly to the amount of melanin produced? Melanocytes
Within limit, what serves as a protective function but repeatedly exposing skin to UV light may cause skin cancer? Melanin
What is a yellow-orange pigment, which is a precursor to vitamin A and is used to synthesize pigments needed for vision? Carotene
What is the oxygen-carrying pigment in red blood cells? Hemoglobin
What are present on most skin surfaces except the palms, palmar surfaces of the fingers, soles, and plantar surfaces on the toes? Hair
What offers limited protection by guarding the scalp from injury and the sun's rays? Hair
What protects the eyes from foreign particles? Eyebrows and eyelashes
What can function in sensing light touch? Hair
What is composed of columns of dead, keratinized cells bonded together by extracellular proteins? Hair
What is the superficial portion of the hair? Shaft
What is the portion of the hair deep to the shaft that penetrates into the dermis and sometimes into the hypodermis? Root
What is the outer layer of the hair that consists of a single layer of thin, flat cells that are the most heavily keratinized? Cuticle
What surrounds the root of the hair and is made up of an external root sheath and an internal root sheath? Hair follicle
The base of each hair follicle is enlarge into an onion-shaped structure called what? Bulb
What of the hair is found in the bulb and contains many blood vessels that nourish the growing hair follicles? Papilla
The bulb contains a germinal layer of cells is the site of hair cell division? Matrix
What are responsible for the growth of existing hairs, and they produce new hair when old hairs are shed, and give rise to the cells of the internal root sheath? Matrix cells
Smooth muscle in hairs is called what? Arrector pili
What extends from the superficial dermis of the skin to the dermal root sheath around the hair follicle, and under stress contract and pull the hair shafts perpendicular to the skin surface? Arrector pili
Hair color is due primarily to the amount and type of what in its cells? Melanin
What glands are connected to hair follicles? Sebaceous glands (oil glands)
The secreting portion of what lie in the dermis and open into the hair follicles or directly onto a skin surface? Sebaceous glands
Sebaceous glands secrete an oily substances called what? Sebum
What coats the surface of hairs and helps keep them from drying and becoming brittle? Sebum
What prevens excessive evaporation of water from the skin, keeps the skin pliable, and inhibits the growth of certain bacteria? Sebum
What glands release perspiration onto the skin surface through pores or into hair follicles? Sudoriferous glands (sweat glands)
What sweat glands are distributed throughout most of the skin and are most numerous in the skin of the forehead, palms and soles, helping to regulate body temperature? Eccrine sweat glands
What kind of sweat glands are found mainly in the skin of the axilla, groin, areolae of the breasts, and bearded regions of the face in adult males? Apocrine sweat glands
What glands are stimulated during emotional stress and sexual excitement resulting in a cold sweat? Apocrine sweat glands
What are modified sweat glands in the external ear that produce a waxy secretion? Cerunimous glands
What provides a sticky barrier that impedes the entrance of foreign bodies, also known as earwax? Cerumen
What are plates of tightly packed, hard, keratinized epidermal cells that form a clear, solid covering over the dorsal surfaces of the distal portions of fingers and toes? Nails
What help to grasp and manipulate small objects, provide protection against trauma to the ends of the fingers and toes, and allow us to scratch various parts of the body? Nails
What is the portion of the nail that is visible? Nail body
What is the part of the nail body that may extend past the distal end of the fingers and toes? Free edge
What is the portion of the nail that is buried into a fold of skin? Nail root
What is the whitish semilunar area near the nail root? Lunula
What is a narrow band of epidermis that extends from the proximal border of the nail and consists of stratum corneum? Cuticle
What is the epithelium deep to the nail root that divides mitotically to produce growth? Nail matrix
What occurs by the transformation of superficial matrix cells into nail cells? Nail growth
What occurs with injuries to the epidermis including minor burns and abrasions? Epidermal wound healing
In response to an epidermal injury, what of the epidermis surrounds the wound and breaks contact with the basement membrane, enlarging and migrating across the wound? Stratum basale cells (basal cells)
When basal cells encounter one another, they stop migrating due to a cellular response called what? Contact inhibition
As basal cells migrate, what hormone stimulates basal stem cells to divide and replace the ones that have moved to the wound? Epidermal growth factor
What kind of healing applies to injuries that extend to the dermis and hypodermis? Deep wound healing
During what phase of deep wound healing does bleeding produce a blood clot in the wound, loosely uniting the wound edges? Inflammatory phase
What is a process that prepares the wound for repair by helping to eliminate microbes, foreign material, and dying tissue? Inflammation
What increases the permeability and diameter of local blood vessels, enhancing delivery of helpful cells, including white blood cells? Inflammation
In what phase of deep wound healing do clots dry into a scab and epithelial cells migrate beneath the scab and epithelial cells migrate beneath the scab to bridge the wound, then fibroblasts synthesize collagen and glycoproteins in the dermis? Migratory phase
Fibrous tissue filling the wound in the migratory phase is called what? Granulation tissue
What phase of deep wound healing is characterized by the extensive growth of epithelial cells beneath the scab, deposition by fibroblasts of collagen fibers in random patterns, and growth of blood vessels? The proliferative phase
During what phase of deep wound healing to scabs fall off and granulation tissue develops into scar tissue as collagen fibers become more organized, fibroblasts decrease in number? Maturation phase
What is the process of scar tissue formation? Fibrosis
What kind of scar remains within the boundary of the original wound? Hypertrophic scar
What type of scar extends beyond the boundaries of the original wound? Keloid scar
What regulates body temperature by liberating sweat and adjusting the flow of blood in the dermis? Skin
The skins serves as what since the dermis houses an extensive network of blood vessels that carry 8 to 10% of the total blood flow in a resting adult? Blood reservoir
What in the skin protects underlying tissues from microbes, abrasion, heat, and chemicals? Keratin
What do lamellar granules release in the skin to inhibit evaporation of water from the skin surface, protecting the body from dehydration? Lipids
What in perspiration retards the growth of some microbes? Acidic pH
What protects the skin from UV light? Melanin
What protects skin and hairs from drying out and contains bactericidal chemicals that kill surface bacteria? Sebum
What cells alert the immune system to the presence of potentially harmful microbial invaders? Epidermal Langerhans
What in the dermis phagocytize bacteria and viruses that manage to penetrate the skin surface? Macrophages
What sensations are those that arise in the skin, including touch, pressure, vibration, tickling, heating, cooling, and pain? Cutaneous
What allow you to sense fine touch, pressure, and slow vibrations? Mesissner corpuscles
What are free nerve endings in the epidermis that allow the sense of touch and pressure? Merkel discs
What are found in the dermis, ligaments, and tendons and allow the sense of stretching of skin? Ruffini corpuscles
What are found in the dermis, hypodermis, joints, and some viscera and allow the sensing of pressure, fast vibrations, and tickling? Pacinian corpuscles
What allow the sensing of pain? Nociceptors
What allow the sensing of coldness or warmth? Thermoreceptors
What is the vehicle for excretion of water and small amounts of salts, CO2, ammonia, and urea? Sweat
How much ml/day of water evaporates from the skin? 400
How many ml/day of insensible sweat is lost from a sedentary person? 200
What absorbs some fat-soluble vitamins, certain drugs, toxins, oxygen, and CO2? Skin
What is a precursor synthesized in response to UV exposure? Vitamin D
What is a hormone that aids in the absorption of calcium in foods from the gastrointestinal tract into the blood? Calcitriol
What type of burn occurs in the epidermis and is painful? First degree burn
What kind of burn extends to the dermis with varying pain? Second degree burn
What type of burn damage extends to the hypodermis with little pain? Third degree burn
What type of burn damage extends into fasica, tendons, or bones? Fourth degree burn
How many burn injuries occur annually and how many require hospitalization? 1 million injuries, 45,000 hospitalizations
What kind of carcinoma arises from stratum basale and invades dermis? Basal cell carcinoma
What is the least dangerous but most prominent form of skin cancer and grows slowly? Basal cell carcinoma
What carcinoma arises from keratinocytes in stratum spinosum and can be treated if caught early? Squamous cell carincoma
What arises from melanocytes of a preexisting mole and is the most lethal form of skin cancer? Malignant melanoma
What is a framework of bone and their cartilages? Skeletal system
What functions as a support since it provides the structural framework for the body and provides attachment points for tendons and most skeletal muscles? Skeletal system
What assists in movement because it provides attachment points for tendons of skeletal muscles? Skeletal system
What assists with mineral homeostasis because they can score calcium and phosphorous and can release minerals on demand? Skeletal system
What system aids in blood cell production? Skeletal system
What is a process where connective tissue called red bone marrow produces red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets? Hemopoiesis
What is present in developing bones of fetus and some adult bones such as ribs, pelvis, sternum, skull, and thigh bones? Red bone marrow
What system aids in triglyceride storage? Skeletal system
What consists mainly of adipocytes and few blood cells, with triglycerides that are a potential chemical energy reserve? Yellow bone marrow
What bones have greater length than width and consists of a shaft and two extremities? Long bones
What bones are slightly curved for strength and absorption of stress from body weight? Long bones
What bones include the thigh, leg, arm, forearm, and fingers and toes? Long bones
What bones are somewhat cube-shaped and nearly equal in length and width? Short bones
What bones are generally thin, afford considerable protection, and provide extensive surfaces for muscle attachment? Flat bones
What bones include the cranial bones, which protect the brain, the breastbone, and ribs, and shoulder blades? Flat bones
Wrist bones and ankle bones are an example of what? Short bones
What bones have complex shapes and cannot be grouped into any other category? Irregular bones
Examples of what bones include the backbones, hipbones, certain facial bones, and the heel bone? Irregular bones
What bones develop in certain tendons where this is considerable friction, tension, and physical stress, such as the palms and soles? Sesamoid bones
What bones vary in number person to person except for the patellae which are normally present in all individuals? Sesamoid bones
What bones protect tendons from excessive wear and tear? Sesamoid bones
What is the bone's shaft or body, the long, cylindrical, main portion of the bone? Diaphysis
What are the distal and proximal ends of the bone? Epiphyses
What are the regions in a mature bone where the diaphysis joins the epiphyses? Metaphyses
In a growing bone, each metaphysis contains what which is a layer of hyaline cartilage that allows the diaphysis of the bone to grow in length? Epiphyseal plate
When bone growth in length stops, the cartilage in the epiphyseal plate is replaced by ossesous tissue, resulting in what? Epiphyseal line
What is a thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering the part of the epiphysis where the bone forms and articulation with another bone? Articular cartilage
What cartilage reduces friction and absorbs shock at freely movable joints? Articular cartilage
What is a tough sheath of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the bone surface wherever it is not covered by articular cartilage? Periosteum
What contains bone-forming cells that enable bone to grow in thickness, and protects the bone, assits in fracture repair, helps nourish bone tissue, and serves as an attachment point for ligaments and tendons? Periosteum
What is the space within the diaphysis that contains yellow bone marrow in adults? Medullary cavity
What is a thin connective tissue membrane that lines the medullary cavity and contains bone-forming cells? Endosteum
What contains an abundant extracellular matrix that surrounds widely separated cells and is about 25% water, 25% collagen fibers, and 50% crystallized mineral salts? Osseous tissue
What is the calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate found in bones? Hydroxyapatite
What is the process of depositing mineral salts around collagen fibers? Collagen
What does not resist torsional forces well? Bone
What are unspecialized stem cells derived from mesenchyme and are the only bone cells to undergo cell division? Osteogenic cells
What cells are found in the inner portion of the periosteum in the endosteum and in the canals within bones that contain blood vessels? Osteogenic cells
What are bone-building cells that synthesize and secrete collagen fibers and other organic components needed to build the extracellular matrix of osseous tissue? Osteoblasts
What secrete collagen and initiate calcification, becoming trapped in secretions and become osteocytes? Osteoblasts
What are mature bone cells and are the most numerous cells in osseous tissue and maintain its daily metabolism, but do not undergo cell division? Osteocytes
What are huge cells derived from fusion of up to 50 monocytes, concentrated in the endosteum and release enzymes that digest the bone matrix? Osteoclasts
The breakdown of the extracellular matrix of ossesous tissue is a process that is part of the normal development, growth, maintenance and repair of bones. What is the process called? Resorption
What contains few spaces and forms the external layer of all bones and makes up the bulk of the diaphyses of long bones, providing protection and support? Compact bone tissue
Blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves from the periosteum penetrate the compact bone tissue through what? Transverse perforating or Volmann's canals
The vessels and nerves of the perforating canals connect with those of the periosteum, medullary cavity, and what else? Central or haverisan canals
What run longitudinally through the bone? Central canals
Around the central canals are rings of hard, calcified extracellular matrix much like the rings of a tree trunk are called what? Concentric lamellae
Between the lamellae are small spaces containing osteocytes. What are the spaces called? Lacunae
Radiating in all directions from the lacunae are tiny channels filled with processes of osteocytes called what? Canaliculi
What connect lacuna and allow osteocytes to communicate? Canaliculi
What bone does not contain osteons, but consists of lamellae that are arranged in an irregulate lattice of thin columns of bone? Spongy bone
What contain lamellae in thin columns of bone, which help make bones lighter and are sometimes filled with red bone marrow? Trabeculae
What bone is located where stresses are weaker or multi-directional? Spongy bone
What enter the diaphysis through numberous perforating canals and supply the periosteum and outer compact bone tissue? Periosteal arteries
In what is there a large artery that enters the bone through the nutrient foramen and then divides into branches that supply the inner part of the compact bone and spongy bone of the diaphysis? Nutrient arteries
What arteries enter the ends of a long bone and supply the red bone marrow and bone tissue of the epiphyses? Epiphyseal and Metaphyseal arteries
What exit with arteries and carry blood away? Veins
What accompany the blood vessels that supply bones and are sensitive to tearing or tension? Nerves
What is the process by which bone forms? Ossification or Osteogenesis
The skeleton of a human embryo is composed of what cells that are loosely shaped like bones and are a template for bone formation? Loose mesenchymal cells
What is the simpler of bone formation and are flat bones of the skull and jawbone, as well as the soft spots that help the fetal skull pass through the birth canal? Intramembranous ossification
What is the site where bone develops in intramembranous ossification, and mesenchymal cells cluster together and differentiate? Ossification center
What is the replacement of cartilage by osseous tissue called? Endochondral ossification
What type of bone is endochondral ossification best observed in? Long bone
What is the layer of hyaline cartilage in the mataphysis? Epiphyseal plate
What zone anchors the epiphyseal plate to osseous tissue? Zone of resting cartilage
What zone is when slightly larger chondrocytes are arranged in stacks and then divide to replace those that die at the diaphyseal side of the epiphyseal plate? Zone of proliferating cartilage
What zone consists of large, maturing chondrocytes arranged in columns? Zone of hypertrophic cartilage
What zone is only a few cells thick and consists mainly of dead chondrocytes since the extracellular matrix has calcified, and osteoclasts dissolve cartilage, osteoblasts lay down bone extracellular matrix? Zone of calcified cartilage
The epiphyseal plate becomes progressively narrower until it is replaced by a bony structure, and signifies that the bone has stopped growing in length is called what? Epiphyseal line
If this is damaged, growth stops? Epiphyseal plate
What is it called when long bones stop growing in childhood, resulting in a normal torso but short limbs? Achondroplastic dwarfism
What is due to spontaneous mutation during DNA replication resulting in a failure of cartilage growth? Achondroplastic dwarfism
What is due to a lack of growth hormone that leads to normal porportions with a short stature? Pituitary dwarfism
In what process do bony ridges form around blood vessels on the periosteum, ridges fuse to create a tunnel enclosing the blood vessels, and osteoblasts form lamellae toward blood vessels? Appositional blood growth
Adequate dietary intake of minerals, hormones, and weight bearing exercise are factors that affect what? Bone growth
What raises blood calcium by increasing intestinal absorption from the skeleton, increases stem cell differentiation, and promoting urinary reabsorption of calcium ions? Calcitriol
Rickets and osteomalacia occur without what? Vitamin D
What raises blood calcium? Parathyroid hormone
What release the parathyroid hormone when blood calcium levels are low? Parathyroid glands
What increase the number of osteoclasts, inhibit osteoblasts, increase the reabsorption of calcium, stimulate excretion of phosphate in kidneys, and increases calcitriol synthesis in kidneys? Parathyroid hormones
What lowers blood calcium levels? Calcitonin
What is secreted by the thyroid gland when calcium concentration rises too high and increases the number and activity of osteoblasts? Calcitonin
What is important in children but has little effect in adults since osteoclasts are more active in children and also reduces bone loss in osteoporosis? Calcitonin
What is bone mass loss where bones become brittle and this is risk of fracutre? Osteoporosis
Risk factors of what include post-menopause when there is an average loss of 30% bone by age 70? Osteoporosis
Prevention of what includes exercise and calcium intake? Osteoporosis
What is any decrease in bone mass below normal? Osteopenia
The healing of bone fractures typically takes how long? Between 8-12 weeks
The first stage of bone fracture healing when a clot forms, then osteogenic cells form granulation tissue, is called what? Fracture hematoma
The second stage of bone fracture healing is when fibroblasts produce fibers and fibrocartilage, and is called what? Soft callus
The third stage of bone fracture healing is when osteoblasts produce a bony collar in 6 weeks, and is called what? Hard callus
The fourth stage of bone fracture healing which takes 3 to 4 months as spongy bone is replaced by compact bone is called what? Bone remodeling
What is a treatment of fractures when fragments are aligned with manipulation and are casted? Closed reduction
What is a treatment of fractures with surgical exposure and repair with plates and screws? Open reduction
What are used for prevention and correction of injuries and disorders of the bones, joints, and muscles? Orthopedics
Created by: jgold37 on 2007-09-16



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