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Key Associations

Disease/findings vs. Most common/important associations

Disease/findingsMost common/important associat
Actinic (solar) keratosis Precursor to squamous cell carcinoma
Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury Cushing's ulcer (increase ICP stimulates vagal gastric secretion)
Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns Culing's ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric muscosa)
Alterating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon Skip lesion (Crohn's disease)
Aneurysm, dissecting Hypertension
Aortic aneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta Atherosclerosis
Aortic aneurysm, ascending Marfan's syndrome (idiopathic cystic medial degeneration)
Atrophy of the mammillary bodies Wernicke's encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and confusion
Autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage) Sickle cell anemia (HbS)
Bacteria associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and stomach cancer H. pylori
Bacterial meningitis (adult and elderly) Neisseria meningitidis
Bacterial meningitis (newborns and kids) Group B streptococcus (newborns), S. pneumoniae/Neisseria meningitidis (kids)
Benign melanocytic nevus Spitz nevus (most common in first two decades)
Bleeding disorder with GpIb deficiency Bernard-Soulier disease (defect in platelet adhesion to von Willebrand's factor)
Brain tumor (adults) Supratentorial: mets > astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforme) > meningioma > schwannoma
Brain tumor (kids) Infratentorial: medulloblastoma (cerebellum) or supratentorial: craniopharyngioma (cerebrum)
Breast cancer Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (in the United States, 1 in 9 women will develop breast cancer)
Breast mass 1. Fibrocystic change 2. Carcinoma (in postmenopausal women)
Breast tumor (benign) Fibroadenoma
Cardiac 1° tumor (kids) Rhabdomyoma, often seen in tuberous sclerosis
Cardiac manifestation of lupus Libman-Sacks endocarditis (nonbacterial, affecting both sides of mitral valve)
Cardiac tumor (adults) 1. Metastasis 2. 1° myxoma (4:1 left to right atrium; "ball and valve")
Cerebellar tonsillar herniation Chiari malformation (often presents with progressive hydrocephalus or syringomyelia)
Chronic arrhythmia Atrial fibrillation (associated with high risk of emboli)
Chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune) Predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)
Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina DES exposure in utero
Compression fracture Osteoporosis (type I: postmenopausal woman; type II: elderly man or woman)
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypotension 21-hydroxylase deficiency
Congenital cardiac anomaly VSD
Congenital conjugated hyperilirubinemia (black liver) Dubin-Johnson syndrome (inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)
Constrictive pericarditis Tuberculosis (developing world); systemic lupus erythematosus (developed world)
Coronary artery involved in thrombosis LAD > RCA > LCA
Cretinism Iodine deficit/hypothyroidism
Cushing's syndrome 1. Corticosteroid therapy 2. Excess ACTH secretion by pituitary 3. Small cell lung carcinoma
Cyanosis (early; less common) Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus
Cyanosis (late; more common) VSD, ASD, PDA
Death in CML Blast crisis
Death in SLE Lupus nephropathy
Dementia 1. Alzheimer's disease 2. Multiple infracts
Demyelinating disease in young women multiple sclerosis
DIC Gram-negative sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burn trauma
Dietary deficit Iron
Diverticulum in pharynx Zenker's diverticulum (diagnosed by barium swallow)
Ejection click Aortic/pulmonic stenosis
Esophageal cancer Squamous cell carcinoma (worldwide); adenocarcinoma (U.S.)
Food poisoning (exotoxin mediated) S. aureus, B. cereus
Glomerulonephritis (adults) Berger's disease (IgA nephropathy)
Gynecologic malignancy Endometrial carcinoma (most common in U.S.); cervical carcinoma (most common worldwide)
Heart murmur, congenital Mitral valve prolapse
Heart valve in bacterial endocarditis Mitral (rheumatic fever), tricuspid (IV drug abuse), aortic (2nd affected in rheumatic fever)
Helminth infection (U.S.) 1. Enterobius vermicularis 2.Ascaris lumbricoides
Hematoma--epidural Rupture of middle meningeal artery (trauma; lentiform shaped)
Hematoma--subdural Rupture of bridging veins (crescent shaped)
Hemochromatosis Multiple blood transfusions or hereditary HFE mutation (can result in CHF, "bronze diabetes," and increase risk of hepatocellular carcinoma)
Hepatocellular carcinoma Cirrhotic liver (associated with hepatitis B and C)
Hereditary bleeding disorder von Willebrand's disease
Hereditary harmless jaundice Gilbert's syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)
HLA-B27 Ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter's syndrome, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis
HLA-DR3 or -DR4 Diabetes mellitus type 1, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE
Holosystolic murmur VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation
Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis Virchow's triad (results in venous thrombosis)
Hypertension, 2° Renal disease
Hypoparathyroidism Accidental excision during thyroidectomy
Hypopituitarism Pituitary adenoma (usually benign tumor)
Infection 2° to blood transfusion Hepatitis C
Infection in chronic granulomatous disease Saphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Aspergillus (catalase positive)
Kidney stones 1. Calcium = radiopaque 2. Struvite (ammonium) = radiopaque (formed by urease- positive organisms such as Proteus vulgaris or Staphylococcus) 3. Uric acid = radiolucent
Late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected L→ R becomes R→ L) Eisenmenger's syndrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA; results in pulmonary hypertension/polycythemia)
Liver disease Alcoholic cirrhosis
Lysosomal storage disease Gaucher's disease
Male cancer Prostatic carcinoma
Malignancy associated with noninfectious fever Hodgkin's lymphoma
Malignant skin tumor Basal cell carcinoma (rarely metastasizes)
Mental retardation 1. Down syndrome 2. Fragile X syndrome
Metastases to bone Breast, lung, thyroid, testes, prostate, kidney
Metastases to brain Lung, breast, skin (melanoma), kidney (renal cell carcinoma), GI
Metastases to liver Colon, gastric, pancreatic, breast, and lunch carcinomas
Mitochondrial inheritance Disease occurs in both males and females, inherited through females only
Mitral valve stenosis Rheumatic heart disease
Mixed (UMN and LMN) motor neuron disease ALS
Myocarditis Coxsackie β
Neoplasm (kids) 1. ALL 2. Cerebellar medulloblastoma
Nephrotic syndrome (adults) Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
Nephrotic syndrome (kids) Minimal change disease (associated with infection/vaccinations; treat with corticosteroids)
Neuron migration failure Kallmann syndrome
Nosocomial pneumonia Klebsiella, E. coli, Pseudomonas aerugimosa
Obstruction of male urinary tract BPH
Opening snap Mitral stenosis
Opportunistic infection in AIDS Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly carinii) pneumonia
Osteomyelitis S. aureus
Osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease Salmonella
Osteomyelitis with IV drug use Pseudomonas, S. aureus
Ovarian metastasis from gastric carcinoma or breast cancer Krukenberg tumor (mucin-secreting signet-ring cells)
Ovarian tumor (benign, bilateral Serous cystadenoma
Ovarian tumor (malignant) Serous cystadenocarcinoma
Pancreatitis (acute) Gallstones, alcohol
Pancreatitis (chronic) Alcohol (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)
Patient with ALL/CLL/AML?CML ALL: child, CLL: adult > 60, AML: adult - 60, CML: adult 30-60
Pelvic inflammatory disease Neisseria gonorrhoeae (monoarticular arthritis)
Philadelphia chromosome t(8;22) (ber-abl) CML (may sometimes be associated with ALL/AML)
Pituitary tumor 1. Prolactinoma 2. Somatotropic "acidophilic" adenoma
Primary amenorrhea Turner syndrome (45XO)
Primary bone tumor (adults) Multiple myeloma
Primary hyperaldosteronism Adenoma of adrenal cortex
Primary hyperparathyroidism 1. Adenomas 2. Hyperplasia 3. Carcinoma
Primary liver cancer Hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, α-1 antitrypsin)
Pulmonary hypertension COPD
Recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels in extremities Buerger's disease (strongly associated with tobacco)
Renal tumor Renal cell carcinoma: associated with von Hippel-Lindau and adult polycystic kidney disease; paraneoplastic syndromes (EPO, renin, PTH, ACTH)
Right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause Cor pulmonale
S3 (protodiastolic gallop) Increase ventricular filling (L→ R shunt, mitral regurgitation, LV failure [CHF])
S4 (presystolic gallop) Stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)
Secondary hyperparathyroidism Hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease
Sexually transmitted disease Chlamydia (usually confected with gonorrhea)
SIADH Small cell carcinoma of the lung
Site of diverticula Sigmoid colon
Sites of atherosclerosis Abdominal aorta > coronary > popliteal > carotid
Stomach cancer Adenocarcinoma
Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma of duodenum (or pancreas)
t(14;18) Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)
t(8;14) Burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc activation)
t(9;22) Philadelphia chromosome, CML (ber-abl fusion)
Temporal arteritis Risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of ophthalmic artery; polymyalgia rheumatica
Testicular tumor Seminoma
Thyroid cancer Papillary carcinoma
Tumor in women Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent, not precancerous)
Tumor of infancy Hemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously by childhood)
Tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults) Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)
Tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids) Neuroblastoma (malignant)
Type of Hodgkin's Nodular sclerosis (vs. mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)
Type of non-Hodgkin's Diffuse large cell
UTI E. coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (young women)
Viral encephalitis affecting temporal lobe HSV-1
Vitamin deficiency (U.S.) Folic acid (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3- to 4-month supply; prevents neural tube defects
Created by: zdevilbiss