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MedTerm (Ch. 4)

Ch. 4: Body Structure

chromatin structural component of the nucleus, composed of nucleic acids and proteins
chromosome threadlike structures within the nucleus composed of a DNA molecule that carries hereditary information encoded in genes
cytoplasm jellylike substance found within the cell membrane composed of proteins, salts, water, dissolved gases, and nutrients
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule that holds genetic information capable of replicating and producing an exact copy whenever the cell divides
diaphragm muscular wall that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity
metabolism sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism
organelle cellular structure that provides a specialized function, such as the nucleus (reproduction), ribosomes (protein synthesis), Golgi apparatus (removal of material from the cell), and lysosomes (digestion)
pathology study of the nature of diseases, their causes, development, and consequences
peristalsis rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the walls of the tubular organ to propel its contents onward
midsagittal (median) right and left halves
coronal (frontal) anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) aspects
transverse (horizontal) superior (upper) and inferior (lower) aspects
Dorsal cavity cranial (brain) and spinal (spinal cord)
Ventral cavity thoracic (heart, lungs, and, associated structures) and abdominopelvic (digestive, excretory, and reproductive organs, and structures)
right upper quadrant (RUQ) right lobe of liver, gallbladder, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines
left upper quadrant (LUQ) left lobe of liver, stomach, spleen, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines
right lower quadrant (RLQ) part of small and large intestines, appendix, right ovary, right fallopian tube, right ureter
left lower quadrant (LLQ) part of small and large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, left ureter
left Hypochondriac region upper left region beneath the ribs
Epigastric region region above the stomach
right Hypochondriac region upper right region beneath the ribs
left Lumbar region left middle lateral region
Umbilical region region of the navel
right Lumbar region right middle lateral region
left Inguinal (Iliac) region left lower lateral region
Hypogastric region lower middle region beneath the navel
right Inguinal (Iliac) region right lower lateral region
abduction movement away from the midsagittal (median) plane of the body or one of its parts
adduction movement toward the midsagittal (median) plane of the body
medial pertaining to the midline of the body or structure
lateral pertaining to a side
superior (cephalad) toward the head or upper portion of a structure
inferior (caudal) away from the head, or toward the tall or lower parts of a structure
proximal nearer to the center (trunk of the body) or to the point of attachment to the body
distal further from the center (trunk of the body) or from the point of attachment to the body
anterior (ventral) front of the body
posterior (dorsal) back of the body
parietal pertaining to the outer wall of the body cavity
visceral pertaining to the viscera, or internal organs, especially the abdominal organs
prone lying on the abdomen, face down
supine lying horizontally on the back, face up
inversion turning inward or inside out
eversion turning outward
palmar pertaining to the palm of the hand
plantar pertaining to the sole of the foot
superficial toward the surface of the body (external)
deep away from the surface of the body (internal)
cyt/o cell
hist/o tissue
kary/o nucleus
nucle/o nucleus
anter/o anterior, front
caud/o tail
crani/o cranium (skull)
dist/o far, farthest
dors/o back (of body)
infer/o lower, below
later/o side, to one side
medi/o middle
poster/o back (of body), behind, posterior
proxim/o near, nearest
ventro/o belly, belly side
abdomin/o abdomen
cervic/o neck; cervix uteri (neck of uterus)
crani/o cranium (skull)
gastr/o stomach
ili/o ilium (lateral, flaring portion of hip bone)
inguin/o groin
lumb/o loins (lower back)
pelv/i pelvis
pelv/o pelvis
spin/o spine
thorac/o chest
umbilic/o umbilicus, navel
albin/o white
leuk/o white
cholr/o green
chrom/o color
cirrh/o yellow
jaund/o yellow
xanth/o yellow
cyan.o blue
erythr/o red
melan/o black
poli/o gray; gray matter (of brain and spinal cord)
acr/o extremity
eti/o cause
idi/o unknown, peculiar
morph/o form, shape, structure
path/o disease
radi/o radiation, x-ray; radius (lower arm bone on thumb side)
somat/o body
son/o sound
viscer/o internal organs
xer/o dry
-genesis forming, producing, origin
-gnosis knowing
-gram record, writing
-graph instrument for recording
-graphy process of recording
-logist specialist in the study of
-logy study of
-meter instrument for measuring
-metry act of measuring
-pathy disease
ab- from, away from
ad- toward
hetero- different
homeo- same, alike
infra- below, under
peri- around
super- upper, above
trans- across, through
ultra- excess, beyond
adhesion abnormal fibrous band that holds or binds together tissues that are normally separated
analyte substance analyzed or tested, generally by means of laboratory methods
contrast medium substance injected into the body, introduced via catheter, or swallowed to facilitate radiographic images of internal structures that otherwise are difficult to visualize on x-ray films
dehiscence bursting open of a wound, especially a surgical abdominal wound
febrile feverish; pertaining to a fever
homeostasis relative constancy or balance in the internal environment of the body, maintained by process of feedback and adjustment in response to external or internal changes
inflammation body defense against injury, infection, or allergy that is marked by redness, swelling, heat, pain, and sometimes, loss of function
morbid diseased; pertaining to a disease
nuclear medicine branch of medicine concerned with the use of radioactive substances for diagnosis, treatment, and research
radiology medical specialty concerned with the use of electromagnetic radiation, ultrasound, and imaging techniques for diagnosis and treatment of disease and injury
interventional radiology radiology practice that employs fluoroscopy, CT, and ultasound in nonsurgical treatment of various disorders
therapeutic radiology use of ionizing radiation in the treatment of cancer
radionuclides substances that emit radiation spontaneously; also called 'tracers'
radiopharmaceutical radionuclide attached to a protein, sugar, or other substance used to visualize and organ or area of the body that will be scanned
scan term used to describe a computerized image by modality (such as CT, MRI, and nuclear imaging) or by structure (such as thyroid and bone)
sepsis pathological state, usually febrile, resulting from the presence of microorganisms or their products in the bloodstream
suppurative producing or associated with generation of pus
endoscopy visual examination of a body cavity or canal using a specialized lighted instrument called an 'endoscope'
laparoscopy visual examination of the organs of the pelvis and abdomen through very small incisions in the abdominal wall
thoracoscopy examination of the lungs, pleura, and pleural space with a scope inserted through a small incision between the ribs
complete blood count (CBC) common blood test that enumerated RBC, WBC, and platelets; measures hemoglobin; estimates red cell volume; and sorts WBC into five subtypes with their percentages
urinalysis (UA) common urine screening test that evaluates the physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of urine
computed tomography (CT) imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angels; formerly called 'computerized axial tomography'
Doppler ultrasound technique used to detect and measure blood-flow velocity and direction through the cardiac chambers, valves, and peripheral vessels by reflecting sound waves off moving blood cells
fluoroscopy radiographic technique in which x-rays are directed through the body to a fluorescent screen that displays continuous motion images of internal structures
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) noninvasive imaging technique that uses radiowaves and a strong magnetic field rather than an x-ray beam to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images
nuclear scan diagnostic technique that uses radioactive material(radiopharmaceutical) called 'tracer' that is introduced into the body (inhaled, ingested, or injected) and a specialized camera to produce images of organs and structures
positron emission tomography (PET) scanning technique using computed tomography to record the positrons (positive changed particles) emitted from a radiopharmaceutical, that produces a cross-sectional image of metabolic activity in body tissues to determine the presence of disease
radiography imaging technique that uses x-rays passed through the body or area and captured on a film; also called 'x-ray'
single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radiological technique that integrates computed tomography (CT) and a radioactive material (tracer) injected into the blood stream to visualize blood flow to tissues and organs
tomography radiographic technique that produces an image representing a detailed cross-section, or slice, of an area, tissue, or organ at a predetermined depth
ultrasonography (US) imaging procedure using high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) that display the reflected "echoes" on a monitor; also called ultrasound, sonography, echo, and echography
biopsy representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis
frozen section (FS) biopsy ultra-thin slice of tissue cut from a frozen specimen for immediate pathological examination
needle biopsy removal of a small tissue sample for examination using a hollow needle, usually attached to a syringe
punch biopsy removal of a small core of tissue using a hollow instrument (punch)
shave biopsy removal of tissue using a surgical blade to shave elevated lesions
ablation removal of a part, pathway, or function by surgery, chemical destruction, electrocautery, freezing, or radio frequency (RF)
anastomosis surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another
cauterize destroy tissue by electricity, freezing, heat, or corrosive chemicals
curettage scraping of a body cavity with a spoon-shaped instrument called a 'curette'
incision and drainage (I&D) incision made to allow the free flow or withdrawal of fluids from a wound or cavity
laser surgery surgical technique employing a device that emits intense heat and power at close range to cut, burn, vaporize, or destroy tissues
radical dissection surgical removal of tissue in an extensive area surrounding the surgical site in an attempt to excess all tissue that may be malignant and decrease the chance of recurrence
resection partial excision of a bone, organ, or other structure
ant anterior
AP anteroposterior
Bx, bx biopsy
CBC complete blood count
CT computed tomography
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
DSA digital subtraction angiography
Dx diagnosis
FS frozen section
I&D incision and drainage
LAT, lat lateral
LLQ left lower quadrant
LUQ left upper quadrant
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
PET positron emission tomography
post posterior
RF rheumatoid factor; radio frequency
RLQ right lower quadrant
RUQ right upper quadrant
sono sonogram
SPECT single photon emission computed tomography
Sx symptom
Tx treatment
UA urinalysis
U&L, U/L upper and lower
US ultrasound, ultrasonography
Created by: 10234895