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CB Solomon

CH 7,8,9,10

QuestionAnswer
A lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, or issues. Attitude
Anything toward which one has an attitude. Attitude Object
The way a consumer feels about an attitude object. Affect
A consumer's actions with regard to an attitude object. Behavior
Beliefs a consumer has about an attitude object. Cognition
Affect Behavior Cognition ADC Models of attitude
A fixed sequence of steps that occurs during attitude formation; this sequence varies depending on such factors as the consumer's level of involvement with the attitude object. Hierarchy of effects
A predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably to a particular advertising stimulus during a particular exposure occasion. Attitude Toward the Advertisement (Aad)
The belief that consumers value harmony among their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and that they are motivated to maintain uniformity among these elements. Principle of Cognitive Consistency
An alternative (to cognitive dissonance) explanation of dissonance effects; it assumes that people use observations of their own behavior to infer their attitudes toward some object. Self Perception Theory
Based on the observation that a consumer is more likely to comply with a request if he or she has first agreed to comply with a smaller request. Foot in th door technique
The perspective that people assimilate new information about attitude objects in light of what they already know or feel; the initial attitude acts as a frame of reference, and new information is categorized in terms of this standard. Social Judgment Theory
Evaluate ideas falling within a latitude favorible, but more likely to reject those falling outside this zone. Latitudes of Acceptance and Rejection
A theory that consider relations among elements a person might perceive as belonging together, and people's tendency to change relations among elements in order to make them consistent or "balanced". Balance Theory
Assumes that a consumers attitude toward an object depends on the beliefs she has about several of its attributes. Multiattribute Models
An updated version of the Fishbein multiattribute attitude theory that considers factors such as social pressure and (Aact)(the attitude toward the act of buying a product), rather than simply attitudes toward the product itself. Theory of Reasoned Action
An additional component to the multiattribute attitude model that accounts for the effects of what we believe other people think we should do. Subjective Norm (SN)
The perceived consequences of a purchase. Attitude Toward the Act of Buying (Aact)
A model that emphasizes multiple pathways to attitude formation. Multiple pathway anchoring and adjustment (MPAA)model
States that the criterion of behavior in the reasoned action model of attitude measurement should be replaced with trying to reach a goal. Theory of Trying
An active attempt to change attitudes. Persuasion
A framework specifying that a number of elements are necessary for communication to be achieved, including a source, message, medium, receivers, and feedback. Communication Model
Popular strategy based on the idea that a marketer will be much more successful in persuading consumers who have agreed to let them try. Permission Marketing
The practice of promoting and selling goods and services via wireless devices including cell phones, PDAs, and iPods. M-Commerce
A communications source's perceived expertise, objectivity, or trustworthiness. Credibility
The process whereby differences in attitude change between positive and negative sources seem to diminish over time. Sleeper Effect
The more involved a company appears to be in the dissemination of news about its products, the less credible it becomes. Corporate Paradox
Word of mouth that is viewed as authentic and generated by customers. Buzz
Corporate propaganda planted by companies to create product sensation--dismissed as inauthentic by customers. Hype
The dimensions of a communicator that increase his or her persuasiveness; these include expertise and attractiveness. Source Attractiveness
celebrity's image and that of the product he or she endorses should be similar to maximize the credibility effectiveness of the communication. Match-up Hypothesis
Fine line between familiarity and boredom. Two seperate psychological processes are occuring when we repeatedly show an ad to a viewer. Two-Factor Theory
Calling attention to a products negative attributes as a persuasive strategy where a negative issue is raised and then dismissed; this approach can increase source credibility. Refutational Arguments
A strategy in which a message compares two or more specifically named or recognizably presented brands and makes a comparison of them in terms of one or more specific attributes. Comparative Advertising
An attempt to change attitudes or behavior through the use of threats or by highlighting negative consequences of noncompliance with the request. Fear Appeals
A story told about an abstract trait or concept that has been personified as a person, animal, or vegetable. Allegory
The use of an explicit comparison ("A" is "B")between a product and some other person, place, or thing. Metaphor
Comparing two objects that share a similar property. Simile
A literary device, frequently used in advertising that uses a play on words (a double meaning) to communicate a product benefit. Resonance
The approach that one of two routes to persuasion (central vs. peripheral) will be followed, depending on the personal relevance of a message contents versus other characteristics, such as source attractiveness. Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
A growing practice where people post messages to the Web in a diary form. Blogging
A condition where a large number of available options forces us to make repeated choices that drain psychological energy and diminish our ability to make smart decisions. Consumer Hyperchoice
A view of the consumer as a careful, analytical decision maker who tries to maximize utility in purchase decisions. Rational Perspective
Initial impulses to buy in order to satisfy our needs increase the likelihood that we will buy even more. Purchase Momentum
The view that consumer decisions are learned responses to environmental cues. Behavioral Influence Perspective
An approach stressing the Gestalt or totality of the product or service experience, focusing on consumers' affective responses in the marketplace. Experiential Perspective
An elaborate decision-making process, often initiated by a motive that is fairly central to the self-concept and accompanied by perceived risk; the consumer tries to collect as much information as possible, and carefully weighs product alternatives. Extended Problem Solving
A problem-solving process in which consumers are not motivated to search for information or to rigorously evaluate each alternative' instead they use simple decision rules to arrive at a purchase decision. Limited Problem Solving
Choices made with little or no conscious effort. Habitual Decision Making
The process that occurs whenever the consumer sees a significant difference between his or her current state of affairs and some desired or ideal state; this recognition initiates the decision making process. Problem Recognition
The process by which the consumer surveys his or her environment for appropriate data to make a reasonable decision. Information Search
Software(Such as Google) that helps consumers access information based upon their specific request. Search Engines
The desire to choose new alternatives over more familiar ones. Variety Seeking
Principle that states that decisions are influenced by the way a problem is posed. Mental Accounting
A descriptive model of how people make choices. (A function of gains and losses) Prospect Theory
Belief that a product has potentially negative consequences. Perceived Risk
The products a consumer actually deliberates about choosing. Consideration Set
Organized system of concepts relating to brands, stores, and other concepts. Knowledge Structure
Trend towards an increasing number of options a product offers that make it more difficult for consumers to decide among competitors. Feature Creep
The dimensions used by consumers to compare competing product alternatives. Evaluative Criteria
The attributes actually used to differentiate among choices. Determinant Attributes
A Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a brain-Scanning device that tracks blood flow as we perform mental tasks. Neuromarketing
Intermediary that helps to filter and organize online market information so that consumers can identify and evaluate alternatives more efficiently. Cybermediary
Software programs that learn from past user behavior in order to recommend new purchases. Intelligent Agent
A software tool that tries to understand a human decision maker's multiattribute preferences for a product category by asking the user to communicate his or her preferences. Based on that data, the software then recommends a list of alternatives. Electronic Recommendation Agent
The mental rules of thumb that lead to a speedy decision. Heuristics
Communicates an underlying quality of a product through the use of aspects that are only visible in the ad. Product Signal
a consumer's specific beliefs or decision rules pertaining to marketplace phenomena. Market Beliefs
Original country from which a product is produced. Can be an important piece of information in the decision-making process. Country of Origin
The belief in the superiority in one's own country's practices and products. Ethnocentricism
Pattern that describes the tendency for the most robust effect to be far more powerful than others in its class; applies to consumer behavior in terms of buyers' overwhelming preferences for the market leader in a product category. Zipf's Law
The process whereby purchase decisions are made out of habit because the consumer lacks the motivation to consider alternatives. Inertia
Repeat purchasing behavior that reflects a conscious decision to continue buying the same brand. Brand Loyalty
Decision shortcust a consumer makes when a product with a low standing on one attribute cannot make up for this position by being better on another attribute. Noncompensatory Decision Rules
A set of rules that allows information about attributes of competing products to be averaged in some way; poor standing on one attribute can potentially be offset by good standing on another. Compensatory Decision Rules
People who read at a very low level; tend to avoid situations where they will have to reveal their inability to master basic consumption decisions such as ordering from a menu. Low-literature Consumer
New trend that enables transactions and information gathering to occur in the background without any direct intervention by consumers or managers. Silent Commerce
Other patrons in a consumer setting. Co-consumers
A feeling of having less time available than is required to meet the demands of everyday living. Time Poverty
The mathmatical study of waiting lines. Queuing Theory
A consumer's general attitude and motivations regarding the act of shopping. Shopping Orientation
Strategy where stores create imaginative environments that transport shoppers to fantasy worlds or provide other kinds of stimulation. Retail Theming
A retail environment that resembles a residential living room where customers are encouraged to congregate. Being Space
One-person businesses. Minipreneurs
Temporary locations that allow a company to test new brands without a huge financial commitment. Pop-up Stores
A stores "personality", composed of such attributes as location, merchandise suitability, and the knowledge and congeniality of the sales staff. Store Image
The use of space and physical features in store design to evoke certain effects in buyers. Atmospherics
A retailing concept that lets consumers participate in the production of the products or services being sold in the store. Activity Stores
A process that occurs when the consumer experiences a sudden urge to purchase an item that he or she cannot resist. Impulse Buying
The promotional materials that are deployed in stores or other outlets to influence consumers' decisions at the time products are purchased. Point-of-purchase (POP) Stimuli
The overall attitude that a person has about a product after it has been purchased. Consumer Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction (CS/D)
States that we form beliefs about product performance based on prior experience with the product and/or communications about the product that imply a certain level of quality. Expectancy Disconfirmation Model
Management and engineering proceedures aimed at reducing errors and increasing quality; based on Japanese practices. Total Quality Management (TQM)
Japanese term for the one true source of information. Gemba
A takeoff on vegans, who shun all animal products; anticonsumerists who live off discards as a political statement against corporations and materialism. Freegans
A process in which already purchased items are sold to others or exchanged for other items. Lateral Cycling
Secondary markets (such as flea markets) where transactions are not officially recorded. Underground Economy
The steps people take to gradually distance themselves from things they treasure so that they can sell them or give them away. Divestment Rituals
The practice of giving away useful but unwanted goods to keep them out of landfills. Freecycling
Created by: rachchappy on 2012-04-03



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