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Week 1

09/11/07

QuestionsAnswers
Q: What is the maximum amount of electrons an atom can have in its innermost shell? A: Two.
Q: What is the maximum amount of electrons an atom can have in its outermost shell? A: Eight.
Q: The outermost shell of an atom is referred to as what? A: The valence shell.
Q: The way in which atoms react with one another is based on what? A: The electrons in the outermost shell referred to as valance electrons.
Q: True or False? Atoms will always gain electrons in order to fill their outer shells. A: False! Atoms with incompletely filled outer shells tend to GAIN, LOSE, or SHARE electrons in ways to EMPTY or FILL their outer shells and create a stable structure.
Q: What is the "Rule of Octets" or the "Octet Rule"? A: Except for the first energy level, atoms react with other atoms so they will have 8 electrons in their valence shell.
Q: What is another name for an electrovalent bond? A: An ionic bond.
Q: What is an ion? A: An atom that has lost or gained electrons to fill their valence shell.
Q: A negative ion is referred to as what? A: An anion.
Q: A positive ion is referred to as what? A: A cation.
Q: What is an ionic bond? A: A bond formed between two oppositely charged ions.
Q: Give an example of an ionic interaction found in biological molecules. A: Salt bridges.
Q: What is a covalent bond? A: A bond formed when atoms share electrons.
Q: True or false? A covalent bond is a strong bond. A: True!
Q: What is a nonpolar covalent bond? A: A covalent bond where electrons are shared equally.
Q: Give an example of a nonpolar covalent bond. A: Hydrogen (H2), Oxygen (O2).
Q: What is a polar covalent bond? A: A covalent bond where electrons are shared unequally causing partial negative and positive regions.
Q: Give an example of a polar covalent bond. A: Water (H20)
Q: What is a hydrogen bond? A: A hydrogen bond is a weak bond formed between hydrogen atoms (that are covalently bonded to another atom) and another atom.
Q: True or false? Hydrogen bonds are important in intra-molecular bonds. A: True! They bind different parts of the same molecule, which helps maintain structure of protein molecules and DNA chains.
Q: What is the most abundant component in cells? A: Water, making up about 70% of cells and 2/3 of human body weight.
Q: True or false? Most biochemical reactions occur in aqueous solution. A: True!
Q: Give two examples of the importance of water discussed in class. A: Transport of chemicals into the body and thermoregulation.
Q: What is the approximate percentage of water compostion in humans? A: 63% for males, and 52% for females.
Q: What are the two major fluid compartments in humans and what is the relative percent of each? A: The intracellular fluid compartment (ICF), about 63% of total water and the extracellular fluid compartment (ECF), about 37% of total water.
Q: What contains more water, the ICF or ECF? A: The ICF.
Q: True or false? Water is wierd. A: True!
Q: Water is liquid in what temperature range. A: 0-100 degrees celsius.
Q: What is meant by high heat capacity? A: Absorbs and releases large amounts of heat very slowly before temperature changes appreciably.
Q: What is meant by high heat of vaporization? A: Requires a lot of heat to change from a liquid to a gas.
Q: Define an amphipathic molecule. A: A molecule with both polar and nonpolar groups.
Q: Give an example of an amphipathic molecule. A: Phospholipids.
Q: True or false? Hydrophilic molecules are soluble in water. A: True! Hydrophilic molecules are polar and suluble in water.
Q: True or false? Hydrophobic molecules are soluble in water. A: False! Hydrophobic molecules are nonpolar and insoluble in water.
Q: What is dehydration (synthesis)? A: Dehydration (synthesis) is when water is removed from adjacent atoms (of molecules) to form a bond between them.
Q: What is hydrolysis (degradation)? A: Hydrolysis (degradation) is when water is used to break bonds between molecules.
Q: What is osmosis? A: Diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
Q: What is osmotic pressure? A: The pressure required to stop the net flow of water across the membrane.
Q: What is a hypertonic solution? A: A solution with a higher solute concentration relative to a cell... cell will crenate.
Q: What is a hypotonic solution? A: A solution with a lower solute concentration relative to a cell... cell will swell or lyse.
Q: What is an isotonic solution? A: A solution with the same solute concentration relative to a cell... causes no change in a cell.
Q: For our purposes in this class, what is an acid? A: A proton donor; donates hydrogen ions (H+) to a solution.
Q: For our purposes in this class, what is a base? A: A proton acceptor; removes hydrogen ions (H+) from solution.
Q: True or false? Weak acids and bases do not completely dissociate in water. A: True!
Q: True or false? Strong acids and bases rapidly & completely dissociate in aqueous solution. A: True!
Q: Did you know... ? A: Most acids and bases in the extracellular fluid are weak acids and bases.
Q: The stronger the acid, the _______ the Ka. A: Larger.
Q: The stronger the acid, the _______ the pKa. A: Lower.
Q: What does the acid dissociation constant (Ka) indicate? A: The tendency of the acid (HA) to lose its proton and form its conjugate base (A-).
Q: What is the formula for Ka? A: Ka = [H+][A-] / [HA]
Q: What is the formula for pKa? A: pKa = -log Ka
Q: What is the formula for pH? A: pH = -log [H+]
Q: What is the pH of water (neutral)? A: Seven.
Q: A solution whose hydrogen ion [H+] concentration is less than its hydroxide ion [OH-] concentration is said to be _______. A: Basic or alkaline.
Q: A solution whose hydrogen ion [H+] concentration is greater than its hydroxide ion [OH-] concentration is said to be _______. A: Acidic.
Q: Having a pH less than 7.35 is referred to as what? A: Acidosis.
Q: Having a pH greater than 7.45 is referred to as what? A: Alkalosis.
Created by: PCC Biochemistry I on 2007-09-12



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