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Medical Lang ch 6 &9

urinary system, chpt 6, and Obstetrics & Neonatology chpt 9

nephr/o, or ren/o kidney(s)
Kidneys are located on each side of the spinal column in the flank or retroperitoneal region
Kidneys are Bilateral organs responsible for 1. removing NITROGENous (N) waste from the blood 2. Maintaining water balance
Examples of Nitrogenous(N) waste include 1. UREA 2. Uric acid 3. Creatinine
Kidneys regulate water balance in the body by regulating the salts
The salts of the body are called electrolytes ("lytes")
Electrolytes ("lytes") include 1. sodium (Na) 2. potassium (K) 3. chloride (Cl (lower case L)
Remember -- where salt goes, water follows which means if you retain salt, you will retain water
Excess fluid can be referred to as edema (edematous)
nephron a kidney cell
nephritis inflammation of a kidney
nephrectomy surgical removal of a kidney
nephromegaly enlargement of a kidney
nephroptosis drooping or sagging (prolapse) of a kidney
nephroma tumor of mass of a kidney
hydronephrosis abnormal condition of excess water (fluid, urine) in a kidney (urine can't leave the body)
nephrohypertrophy excessive growth or development of a kidney
nephrolithiasis abnormal condition of (a) kidney stone(s)
another name for stone is a calculus (singular) Calculi (plural)
nephrogram record (X-ray) of a kidney
nephrography process of recording (X-ray) a kidney
nephrosonography process of recording a kidney using sound waves
nephrostomy a new or artificial opening into a kidney
nephropexy surgical fixation of a kidney
nephrotomography process of recording X-ray Picture slices of a kidney
nephroscopy process of viewing a kidney
renal pertaining to a kidney
renal biopsy (Bx) cytology test of a kidney
cytology study of cells
renogram record of a kidney using injectable radioactive contrast material
Radioactive Diagnostic Imaging (DI) is performed in Nuclear Medicine
renal transplant (transplantation) surgical implantation of a donor kidney to replace nonfunctioning kidneys
ureter/o ureter(s)
The ureters are bilateral tubes (vessels, ducts) that carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder (two E's two tubes)
ureteritis inflammation of a ureter
ureterostenosis narrowing (stricture) of a ureter
ureterotomy surgical incision of a ureter
ureterectomy surgical removal (excision) of a ureter
ureterolithiasis abnormal condition of stone(s) in a ureter
ureterocele herniation of a ureter
ureterogram record (X-ray) of a ureter
ureterostomy a new or artificial opening into a ureter
cyst/o or vesic/o urinary bladder
The urinary bladder is an elastic sac that acts as a reservoir (storage container) for urine
cystitis inflammation of the urninary bladder
cystolith(s) stone(s) in the urinary bladder
cystectomy excision of the urinary bladder
cystocele herniation of the urinary bladder
cystotomy or vesicotomy surgical incision of the urinary bladder
cystoureterogram record (X-ray) of the urinary bladder and a ureter
cystolithotomy surgical incision of the urinary bladder to remove a stone(s)
cystolithectomy surgical removal of a stone(s) in the urinary bladder
cystoplasty surgical repair of the urinary bladder
cystorrhaphy suturing the urinary bladder
cystostomy a new or artificial opening into the urinary bladder
stoma new or artificial opening
cystogram record (X-ray) of the urinary bladder
cystography process of recording (X-ray) the urinary bladder (using contrast/radiopague
cystoscope a lighted instrument to view the urinary bladder
cystoscopy process of viewing the urinary bladder
pyel/o renal pelvis
A renal pelvis is where a ureter connects to a kidney
IntraVenous Pyelogram (IVP) a record of the renal pelves after injection of a dye within a vein causing the renal pelves (plural) to illuminate when exposed to X-rays
pyelitis inflammation of a renal pelvis (singular)
pyelonephritis inflammation of a renal pelvis and a kidney
pyelolithotomy surgical incision of a renal pelvis to remove a stone(s)
pyelolithectomy surgical removal of a stone in a renal pelvis
pyeloplasty surgical repair of a renal pelvis
pyelostomy a new or arificial opening into a renal pelvis
cystopyelogram a record (X-ray) of the urinary bladder and a renal pelvis
cystopyelography the process of recording (X-ray) of the urinary bladder and a renal pelvis
urethr/o urethra
the female urethra is the vessel (duct, tube) that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the urethral (urinary) meatus (os, orifice) (one E one Tube)
urethrocystitis inflammation of the urethra and urinary bladder
urethropexy surgical fixation of the urethra
urethroplasty surgical repair of the urethra
urethrotomy surgical incision of the urethra
urethroscope a lighted instrument to view the urethra
urethrometer an instrument used to measure the urethra
urethrostomy a new or artificial opening into the urethra
cystourethrogram a record (X-ray) of the urniary bladder and the urethra
azot/o nitrogen(N)
azotemia (azotemic) a blood condition of excessive nitrogenous(N) waste AKA uremia (uremic)
urin/o or ur/o urine
urine fluidic waste produced by the kidneys
UrinAlysis (UA) a chemical analysis of urine
urologist a specialist in the study of the urinary system and the male reproductive system
urinal a calibrated receptacle (container) for urine
Calibrated (calibration) refers to a method of measurement
-uria urine or urination
nocturia a condition of chronic (persistent) night urination
noct- night
dysuria a condition of painful or difficult urination
anuria (anuric) a condition of no urine production
hematuria a condition of blood in the urine
bacteriuria a condition of bacteria in the urine
oliguria a condition of scanty (deficient) urine
pyuria a condtion of pus in the urine
Pus primarily consists of necrosed leukocytes (WBCs)
glycosuria a condition of glucose (sugar) in the urine
ketonuria a condition of ketones (acetone) in the urine
albuminuria or proteinuria a condition of albumin (blood protein) in the urine
urinate or urination the act of discharging (releasing) urine AKA void(ing) or micturition (micturate)
urinary frequency the urge to void at frequent intervals
urinary hesitancy involuntary delay in initiating (starting) micturition
urinary retention accumulation of urine in the urinary bladder due to the inability to urinate
urinary urgency a sudden sensation to void immediately
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) crushing stone(s) using sound waves from the outside of the body
diuresis (diuretic) increased secretion of urine AKA polyuria (caffenine, alcohol are examples of diuretics)
lithotrite instrument used to crush a stone in the urinary bladder
fulguration destruction of tissue with an electric spark (cauterization)
urinary catheter (cath) flexible tube-like device for withdrawing and instilling fluids
indwelling (retention) urinary catheter a urinary catheter that remains within the patient
Foley a manufacturer of urinary catheters
CBI Continuous Bladder Irrigation
The solution commonly used for Continuous Bladder Irrigation (CBI) is Normal Saline Solution (NSS)
straight or non-retention catheter a urinary catheter that is inserted to obtain a specimen or to empty the urinary bladder and then removed
residual urine urine that remains in the urinary bladder after voiding
distended (distention) stretched out
enuresis involuntary urination AKA urinary incontinence
HemoDialysis (HD) artificial removal of toxins (Nitrogenous (N) waste (poisons) from the blood
Another type of dialysis is Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD)
hypoKalemia a blood condition of deficient potassium (K)
hyperNAtremia a blood condition of excessive sodium (Na)
stricture abnormal narrowing (stenosis)
clean catch (midstream) urine sample a technique used to obtain an uncontaminated urine sample
BUN Blood Urea Nitrogen A blood test for kidney function
KUB a non-radiopaque X-ray of the Kidneys, Ureters, and urinary Bladder
VCUG Voiding CystoUrethroGram (VCUG)
UTI Urinary Tract Infection
NaCl sodium chloride (table salt)
KCl potassium(K) chloride(Cl)
GU GenitoUrinary
pH a measure of acidity or alkalinity
gravid/o or cyes/o, or cyes/i pregnancy or gestation
Pregnancy or gestation is the development of a fertilized ovum
cyesis pregnancy (gestation)
cyesiology the study of pregnancy (gestation)
pseudocyesis false pregnancy (gestation)
pseudo/o false
salpingocyesis pregnancy (gestation) occurring in a fallopian tube AKA tubal pregnancy
amni/o, or amnion/o amnion
The amnion is the membranous sac that surrounds the embryo/fetus
amniocentesis surgical puncture of the amnion
An amniocentesis is usually performed after 14 weeks of gestation
Amniotic fluid will be aspirated and tested to detect genetic anomalies (abnormalities)
amnioscope a usually lighted instrument used to view the amnion
amnioscopy process of using a usually lighted instrument to view the amnion
amnionitis inflammation of the amnion
amniorrhea flow (discharge) of amniotic fluid
amniorrhexis rupture of the amnion --- Layperson would say that their "water broke"
amniotomy surgical incision of the amnion --- layperson would say that the doctor "broke my water"
An amniotomy is performed to induce labor
fet/o fetus
fetal pertaining to a fetus
fetogram a record of a fetus AKA sonogram
fetometry the process of measuring a fetus
nat/o birth (parturition)
natal pertaining to birth (parturition)
prenatal pertaining to before birth (parturition)
postnatal pertaining to after birth (parturition)
neonatal pertaining to a New Born(NB) AKA neonate (1st four weeks)
par/o, or part/o birth
para number of births
para III three births
primiparous pertaining to the first birth
multiparous (multip) pertaining to more than one birth
nulliparous pertaining to no births
parturition birth
antepartum pertaining to before birth (parturition)
intrapartum pertaining to within (during)labor and birth (parturition)
postpartum pertaining to after birth (parturition)
omphal/o (willy wonka) umbilical cord (umbilicus)
The umbilical cord connects the embryo/fetus to the placenta
The layperson calls the placenta the afterbirth
The placenta is the connection between the embryonic/fetal blood and maternal (mother) blood
omphalitis inflammation of the umbilical cord
omphalocele congential herniation of the abdominal contents through the umbilicus
congenital acquired during pregnancy (gestation)
lacto milk
lactic pertaining to milk
lactogenic pertaining to the production of milk (lactation)
lactorrhea the flow (discharge) of milk (lactation)
viable (viability) the ability of a fetus to live outside of the uterus
dystocia a condition of difficult labor or delivery (parturition)
embryotocia delivery (parturition) of an embryo AKA "spontaneous abortion" or "miscarriage"
abortion termination of pregnancy (gestation)
abruptio placentae (placental abruption) permature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall
placenta previa abnormally low implantation of the placenta on the uterine wall
cleft lip (labia)and/or palate congenital split of a lip (labia) and/or roof of the oral cavity (palate)
A Cleft is a fissure, crack, or groove
palatoplasty surgical repair of a palate
labioplasty surgical repair of a lip (labia)
embryogenic pertaining to the creation of an embryo
embryoid resembling an embryo
embryologist a specialist in the study of embryos
gravida number of pregnancies
gravida III para II three pregnancies and two births
gravida II para III two pregnancies and three births. gravida II para III indicates twins or triplets
identical twins one fertilized ovum splits and the genetic material (DNA) is shared
fraternal twins ovulation of two ova which are fertilized
ovulation expulsion of an ovum from an ovary
primigravida first pregnancy (gestation)
multigravida more than one pregnancy (gestation)
nulligravida no pregnancies
gravidopuerperal pertaining to pregnancy (gestation) and immediately after birth (parturition)
effacement shortening, thinning, and stretching of the vagina during labor
ectopic pregnancy pregnancy occuring outside of the uterus
pelvimetry the process of measuring the pelvis
breech birth parturition where the fetus is not in a head-down position
lochia vaginal discharge after birth (parturition)
meconium (macaronium) first stool(black) of the neonate
OBstetrics (OB) medical specialty dealing with gestation, childbrith, and puerperium
puerperium period of time covering 6 weeks after parturition (birth)
infant the offspring from the 5th week to 1 year
permature infant neonate before 37 weeks of gestation (pregnancy)
isolette a transparent container where premature neonates are placed to receive warmth and O2 AKA an incubator
kernicterus a yellowish, orangish, discoloration of the skin in a neonate AKA jaundice
Apgar score an evaluation of a neonate's extrauterine ability at 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth and includes: heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflexes and color
C/S or C-section Cesarean Section
a C-section (C/S) is delivery of the offspring through an abdominopelvic incision
EDD Estimated Date of Delivery AKA the "due date"
RDS Respiratory Distress Syndrome
NICU Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
IVF In Vitro Fertilization
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) refers to ova fertilized outside of the body and artificially inseminated
CVS Chorionic Villus Sampling
CVS (chorionic villus sampling) is a test to detect fetal genetic anomalies
HCG Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) is a hormone that can be found in the serum or urine of a pregnant woman
EPT Early Pregnancy Test (detects HCG)
IUGR IntraUterine Growth Rate
R/O Rule Out (vaginal bleeding R/O embryotocia)
FEKG Fetal ElectroCardioGram
FHR Fetal Heart Rate
FHT Fetal Heart Tone
FEKG, FHR, and FHT all refer to fetal monitoring
Created by: Patti Belfi Reed Patti Belfi Reed