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Midterm MA150

LOM Chapters: 3, 4 and 22. Delmar Chapter 34

(HDL) High-density lipoproteins good cholesterol
(LDL)Low-density lipoproteins bad cholesterol
ab- away from
absorption the transfer of the nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract into the bloodstream
achondroplasia improper development of cartilage at the ends of the long bones, resulting in a form of congenital dwarfism
ad- towards
adrenal glands a pair of complex endocrine glands situated near the kidney
agromegaly an endocrine disorder. It occurs when the pituitary gland, attached to the base of the brain, produces an excessive amount of growth hormone after the completion of puberty
-algia, -dynia pain
amino acids basic structural unit of a protein is the amino acid. There are 22 amino acids in protein. Eight of these are needed in the diet for the body to function normally. Histidine is essential only during childhood
anemia a pathological deficiency in the oxygen-carrying component of the blood
angioplasty surgical repair of a blood vessel, either by inserting a ballon-tipped catheter to unblock it or by reconstructing or replacing part of the vessel
anorexia nervosa "lack of appetite." Intensly afraid of gaining weight and has a disturbance in perception of the shape or size of the body
ante- before, forward
anti- against
antianxiety and antipanic agents lessen anxiety, tension and agitation, especially when associated with panic attacks
antibodies protein substances made by white blood cells in response to the presence of foreign antigens
antidepressants reverse depressive symptoms and returns the patient to a more even state
antigens a foreign substance: poison, virus, bacterium
antioxidants are important in nutrition. The four primary antioxidants are beta-carotene (vitamin A), vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium
antisocial no loyalty or concern for others
anxiety disorders unpleasant tension, distress and avoidance behavior
aplastic anemia a form of anemia in which the capacity of the bone marrow to generate red blood cells is defective
arteriole one of the small terminal branches of an artery, especially on that connects with a capillary
atypical antidepressants antidepressants that do not fit in other categories. SNRI's. Remeron (mirtazapine), Wellbutrin (bupropion), Effexor (venlafaxine)
autoimmune disease any of a large group of diseases characterized by abnormal functioning of the immune system that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against your own tissues
basal metabolic rate (BMR) the level of energy required for activities that occur when the body is at rest
beriberi caused by thiamin deficiency and is characterized by neuritis, edema, and cardiovascular change
bipolar disorder I one or more manic episodes, often alternating with major depressive episodes
bipolar disorder II recurrent major depressive episodes alternating with hypomania episodes
blepharoptosis prolapse upper eyelids
brady- slow
bulimia nervosa binge eating followed by purging
calories (C or Cal) the amount of energy that a substance is able to supply
carbohydrates provide major source of energy. Made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Units of sugars
cardiomypathy disease of the heart muscle
catalyst allows a chemical reaction to proceed at a much quicker rate and without as much energy input
-cele hernia; weakness of muscles
cellulose a complex carbohydrate that is composed of glucose units, forms the main constituent of the cell wall in most plants
coenzyme the nonprotein part acts with catalyst
cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) focused psychotherapy for a wide range of psychological problems, including depression, anxiety, anger, marital conflict, fears and substance abuse
compulsion uncontrollable urge to perform an act repeatedly
congenital anomaly irregularity in a structure or organ. Webbed fingers or toes and heart defects
contralateral opposite of the body
conversion anxiety becomes a bodily symptom, such as blindness, deafness, or paralysis that does not have a physical basis
cyclothymic disorder a mild form of bipolar disorder characterized by at least 2 years of hypomania and numerous depressive episodes
cystocele urinary bladder herniates through the vaginal wall
defense mechanisms denial techniques to ward off the anxiety produced by conflicts
delirium tremens brought on by stopping alcohol comsumption suddenly after prolonged periods of heavy alcohol ingestion
delusion a fixed, false belief that cannot be changed by logical reasoning or evidence
dementia a general, more gradual loss of intellectual abilities that involves impairment of judgement, memory, and abstract thinking as well as changes in personality
depressive disorders occurrence of one or more major depressive episodes without history of mania or hypomania
dialysis removal of harmful waste products from the body with an artificial kidney machine
digestion involves the physical and chemical changes to food that the body makes to make it absorpable.
dissociative disorder (DID) a condition involving breakdown in memory, identity, or perception. Escape reality through amnesia, fugue, or alternate identities.
diuretics found through caffeine and alcohol; may cause the body to lose water through increased urinary output.
Dopamine increases the force of the contraction of the heart rate and blood pressure systolic phase.
dysporia sadness, hopelessness, worry, discouragement
ego central coordinating branch of the personality.
electrolytes become ionized and carry positive or negative charge
enuresis bed wetting
epinephrine increase blood pressure and heart rate, makes pupils dilate.
erythrocytes (RBC) red blood cells. Made in the bone marrow
euphoria exaggerated feeling of well-being (High)
extracellular outside the cell
fat soluble are not carried into the bloodstream easily and are stored in fatty tissue, especially the liver.
FDA requires: all food packaging labels show the amount of trans fats per serving in the product.
flat affect marked by monotonous voice, immobile face and no signs of expression
folate (folic acid) DNA synthesis, synthesis of RBC's, protein metabolism. Deficiency: anemia, glossitis. Toxicity: none
food groups and servings Grains: 6oz per day. Vegetables: 2 1/2cups per day. Fruits: 2cups per day. Milk: 3cups per day. Meat & beans: 5 1/2oz per day.
forensic psychiatrists legal aspect of psychiatry
glycogen only ingested in small quantities, but is an important carbohydrate form for storage of glucose in the body.
-gram record
-graph instrument for recording
-graphy process of recording
hallucination false or unreal sensory perception
hemi- half
hernia protrusion of an organ or the muscular wall of an organ through the cavity that normally contains it
histrionic emotional, attention-seeking, immature, and dependent; irrational outbursts and tantrums; flamboyant and theatrical.
homeostasis normal
hypochondriasis a preoccupation with the body aches, pains and discomforts in the absence of real illness
hypomania a mood resembling mania, but of lesser intensity
id unconscious instincts and psychic energy present from birth
infra- beneath, under
inter- between
intra- in, within, into
ipsilateral located on the same side of the body
ischemia hold back blood from a part of the body
laparoscopy An operation in which a laparoscope is used, as in an examination of the liver or the surgical treatment of endometriosis
leukocytes (WBC) white blood cells. Five different kinds of leukocytes: granulacytes: eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils; mononuclear: lymphocytes, monocytes
lipids also known as fats. Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
lymphocytes Any of the nearly colorless cells found in the blood, lymph, and lymphoid tissues, constituting approximately 25 percent of white blood cells and including B cells, which function in humoral immunity, and T cells, which function in cellular immunity.
major minerals seven major minerals: calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, sulfur.
mal- bad
mania elation or irritability, associated with distractibility, hyperactivity, talkativeness, injudicious acts, flight of ideas and racing thoughts
mastectomy removal of the breast(s)
metabolism is the balance between the energy that is brought into the body and the energy used by the body.
minerals singular elements. Some minerals are required in larger amounts.
MMPI - Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory contains true-false questions that reveal aspects of personality, such as sense of duty or responsibility, ability to relate to others and dominance.
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) drug suppress an enzyme, monoamine oxidase, that normally degrades neurotransmitters. Example: Nardil (phenelzine), Marplan (isocarboxazid), Deprenyl (selegiline)
monocytes A large, circulating, phagocytic white blood cell, having a single well-defined nucleus and very fine granulation in the cytoplasm. Monocytes constitute from 3 to 8 percent of the white blood cells in humans.
monosaccharides and disaecharides known as simple sugars
narcissistic grandiose sense of self-importance or unqueness and preoccupation with fantasies of success and power.
nercosis Death of cells or tissues through injury or disease
norepinephrine a hormone that produces adrenaline medulla; vaso constrictor.
nutrition the study of the taking of nutrients into the body and how the body uses them.
obsession an involuntary, persistent idea or emotion
-oma tumor, mass, collect of fluid
omphalocele umbilicus, naval hernia
-opsy to view
orthostatic hypotension condition which decreases the blood pressure due to sudden changes in the body positions
pan- all
pancytopenia deficiency of erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes
paracentesis the surgical puncture of a body cavity in order to draw off excess fluid
paranoia overly suspicious system of thinking; fixed delusion that one is being harassed, persecuted or unfairly treated.
paranoid continually suspicious and mistrustful of others
parasitism when one organism benefits and the other does not
parathyroid glands located behind the thyroid gland.
-pena deficiency
pervasive developmental disorders childhood disorders characterized by delays in the development of socialization and communication skills
phobia disorders characterized by irrational or debilitating fears associated with a specific object.
- plasia development, formation, growth
pleurodynia pain in the chest wall muscles that is aggravated by breathing
polysaccharides complex carbohydrates. Most common are starches, glycogen and fiber.
primary energy sources carbohydrates and fats. When in short supply, the body diverts its use of protein for structual purposes to use it as an energy source; which can be detrimental effects to the body.
processed foods precooked or packaged foods with parts removed or ingredients added.
prolapse slide forward or downward
prophylaxis helps control symptoms
proteins composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, it contains one more important element: nitrogen. Protein is described as an energy nutrient.
psychiatrists an MD; practice of psychotherapy, psychopharmacology, forensic psychiatrists, child psychiatrists
psychiatry the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental illness
psychoanalysis freely relates her or his thoughts and associations to the analyst, who does not interfere in the process.
psychodrama patient express their feelings by acting out family and social roles along with other patient-actors on a stage
psychologisy nonmedical professional. Behavior, research and clinical
psychosis describes mental illness
-ptosis falling, dropping, prolapse
PTSD - post traumatic stress disorder the development of symtoms following exposure to a traumatic event.
recombinant DNA the process of taking a gene from one organism and inserting it into the DNA of another organism
rectocele the protrusion of a portion of the rectum
repression a defense mechanism in which a person removes unacceptable ideas or impulses from consciousness
saccharide scientific term for sugar
saturated fats more common in foods from animal sources than plant sources.
schizoid emotionally cold and aloof.
schizophrenic a chronic psychotic disorder that includes delusions, hallucinations, flat affect
-sclerosis hardening
-scope instrument for visual examination
-scopy process of visual examination (with an endoscope)
seasonal affective disorder (SAD) seasonal depression
serotonin vaso constrictor affects sleep and sensory perception
sexual and gender identity disorders types: exhibitionism, fetishism, pedophilia, sexual masochism, sexual sadism, transvestic fetishism, voyerurism. Gender identity disorder is a strong and persistent cross-gender identification with the opposite sex.
splenomegaly enlargement of the spleen
SSRI's selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Celexa (citalopram), Paxil (paroxetine), Zoloft (sertraline), Luvox (fluvoxamine)
staphylococci berry shaped bacterium, grows in small clusters
Stimulants amphetamines are prescribed for ADHD
-stomy opening to form a mouth (stoma)
streptococcus berry shaped bacterium, grows in twisted chains
superego internalized conscience and moral part of the personality.
supra- above, upper
symphysis a joint in which the bony surfaces are firmly united by a layer of fibrocartilage.
syn-, sym- together, with
syndactyly a congenital anomaly marked by fusion of fingers or toes
three energy nutrients carbohydrates, fats and proteins
thrombocytes (platelets) clotting cells
tonsillitis bacterium infection of the throat.
toxicity can occur with high doses of either type of vitamin but is more likely to occur with the fat-solube vitamins because they are stored in the body.
trace minerals required in smaller quantities, but are as important as the major minerals. Include: iron, copper, chromium, molybdenum, selenium, managanese, iodine, zinc, cobalt and fluorine.
tracheotomy an incision into the trachea to open it below a blockage
trans fats found in meat and dairy produces, as well as stick margarine, solid shortening and many commercially prepared foods.
transsurethral resection of the prostate gland
Tricyclic antidepressants block the reuptake of the neurotransmitters at the nerve endings. Pamelor (nortriptyline), Tofranil (imipramine), Anafranil (clomipramine)
triglycerides A naturally occurring ester of three fatty acids and glycerol that is the chief constituent of fats and oils
-trophy development, nourishment
-um, -ium structure, tissue
vitamin B12 synthesis of RBC's, maintenance of myelin sheaths. Deficiency: degeneration of myelin sheaths, pernicious anemia. Toxicity: none.
vitamin C prevention of scurvy, absorption of iron, antioxidant, hormones, healing of wounds. Deficiency: scurvy, muscle cramps. Toxicity: increase uric acid level, hemolytic anemia, kidney stones.
vitamin E antioxidant. Deficiency: destruction of RBC's. Toxicity: hypertension
vitamin K blood clotting. Deficiency: prolonged blood clotting. Toxicity: jaundice, hemolytic anemia
vitamins a class of nutrient in which each specific vitamin has a function entirely its own.
water soluble not easily stored and blood levels must be maintained by constant dietary intake.
Created by: karpati